A rapid, point-of-care red blood cell agglutination assay detecting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2
AuthorKruse, Robert L
Gehrie, Eric A
Amukele, Timothy K
Tobian, Aaron A R
Mostafa, Heba H
Wang, Zack Z
JournalBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for serological tests to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, which could be used to assess past infection, evaluate responses to vaccines in development, and determine individuals who may be protected from future infection. Current serological tests developed for SARS-CoV-2 rely on traditional technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and lateral flow assays, which have not scaled to meet the demand of hundreds of millions of antibody tests so far. Herein, we present an alternative method of antibody testing that depends on one protein reagent being added to patient serum/plasma or whole blood with direct, visual readout. Two novel fusion proteins, RBD-2E8 and B6–CH1-RBD, were designed to bind red blood cells (RBCs) via a single-chain variable fragment (scFv), thereby displaying the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on the surface of RBCs. Mixing mammalian-derived RBD-2E8 and B6–CH1-RBD with convalescent COVID-19 patient serum and RBCs led to visible hemagglutination, indicating the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD. B6–CH1-RBD made in bacteria was not as effective in inducing agglutination, indicating better recognition of RBD epitopes from mammalian cells. Given that our hemagglutination test uses methods routinely used in hospital clinical labs across the world for blood typing, we anticipate the test can be rapidly deployed at minimal cost. We anticipate our hemagglutination assay may find extensive use in low-resource settings for detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.
SponsorsThis work was funded by the Johns Hopkins Department of Pathology Fred and Janet Sanfilippo Research Award (R.L.K), and partially supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease [grant R01DK106109] (Z.Z.W).
Rights/TermsCopyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/15106
- A highly specific and sensitive serological assay detects SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in COVID-19 patients that correlate with neutralization.
- Authors: Peterhoff D, Glück V, Vogel M, Schuster P, Schütz A, Neubert P, Albert V, Frisch S, Kiessling M, Pervan P, Werner M, Ritter N, Babl L, Deichner M, Hanses F, Lubnow M, Müller T, Lunz D, Hitzenbichler F, Audebert F, Hähnel V, Offner R, Müller M, Schmid S, Burkhardt R, Glück T, Koller M, Niller HH, Graf B, Salzberger B, Wenzel JJ, Jantsch J, Gessner A, Schmidt B, Wagner R
- Issue date: 2021 Feb
- A haemagglutination test for rapid detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.
- Authors: Townsend A, Rijal P, Xiao J, Tan TK, Huang KA, Schimanski L, Huo J, Gupta N, Rahikainen R, Matthews PC, Crook D, Hoosdally S, Dunachie S, Barnes E, Street T, Conlon CP, Frater J, Arancibia-Cárcamo CV, Rudkin J, Stoesser N, Karpe F, Neville M, Ploeg R, Oliveira M, Roberts DJ, Lamikanra AA, Tsang HP, Bown A, Vipond R, Mentzer AJ, Knight JC, Kwok AJ, Screaton GR, Mongkolsapaya J, Dejnirattisai W, Supasa P, Klenerman P, Dold C, Baillie JK, Moore SC, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Turtle LCW, Ainsworth M, Allcock A, Beer S, Bibi S, Skelly D, Stafford L, Jeffrey K, O'Donnell D, Clutterbuck E, Espinosa A, Mendoza M, Georgiou D, Lockett T, Martinez J, Perez E, Gallardo Sanchez V, Scozzafava G, Sobrinodiaz A, Thraves H, Joly E
- Issue date: 2021 Mar 29
- Single-Dilution COVID-19 Antibody Test with Qualitative and Quantitative Readouts.
- Authors: Bortz RH 3rd, Florez C, Laudermilch E, Wirchnianski AS, Lasso G, Malonis RJ, Georgiev GI, Vergnolle O, Herrera NG, Morano NC, Campbell ST, Orner EP, Mengotto A, Dieterle ME, Fels JM, Haslwanter D, Jangra RK, Celikgil A, Kimmel D, Lee JH, Mariano MC, Nakouzi A, Quiroz J, Rivera J, Szymczak WA, Tong K, Barnhill J, Forsell MNE, Ahlm C, Stein DT, Pirofski LA, Goldstein DY, Garforth SJ, Almo SC, Daily JP, Prystowsky MB, Faix JD, Fox AS, Weiss LM, Lai JR, Chandran K
- Issue date: 2021 Apr 21
- Competitive SARS-CoV-2 Serology Reveals Most Antibodies Targeting the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain Compete for ACE2 Binding.
- Authors: Byrnes JR, Zhou XX, Lui I, Elledge SK, Glasgow JE, Lim SA, Loudermilk RP, Chiu CY, Wang TT, Wilson MR, Leung KK, Wells JA
- Issue date: 2020 Sep 16
- Comparison of Serological Assays for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies.
- Authors: James J, Rhodes S, Ross CS, Skinner P, Smith SP, Shipley R, Warren CJ, Goharriz H, McElhinney LM, Temperton N, Wright E, Fooks AR, Clark TW, Brookes SM, Brown IH, Banyard AC
- Issue date: 2021 Apr 20