Starvation Survival and Biofilm Formation under Subminimum Inhibitory Concentration of QAMs
AuthorTiwari, Sanjay Kumar
Xu, Hockin H K
JournalBioMed Research International
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractQuaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) are useful antimicrobial compounds against oral bacteria. Here, we investigated the effects of two QAMs, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), on biofilm formation, survival and development of tolerance by biofilm, and survival and development of tolerance against QAMs after prolonged starvation. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), and Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) were used. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of QAMs against multispecies biofilm was determined. Biofilm formed under sub-MIC was observed by crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Metabolic activity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and lactic acid production measurement. Development of tolerance was determined by MIC values before and after exposure to QAMs or after prolonged starvation. It was found that E. faecalis and S. gordonii could survive and form biofilm under sub-MIC of QAMs. Lactic acid production from biofilms formed under sub-MIC was significantly higher than control specimens (p < 0.05). The exposure to sub-MIC of QAMs promoted biofilm formation, and prolonged starvation or prolonged contact with sub-MIC helped bacteria develop tolerance against killing by QAMs.
Rights/TermsCopyright © 2021 Sanjay Kumar Tiwari et al.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/14675
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