Functions and therapeutic potential of extracellular hsp60, hsp70, and hsp90 in neuroinflammatory disorders
Vitale, Alessandra Maria
Caruso Bavisotto, Celeste
Conway de Macario, Everly
Macario, Alberto J.L.
Marino Gammazza, Antonella
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
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AbstractNeuroinflammation is implicated in central nervous system (CNS) diseases, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Progress may be accelerated by developing a comprehensive view of the pathogenesis of CNS disorders, including the immune and the chaperone systems (IS and CS). The latter consists of the molecular chaperones; cochaperones; and chaperone cofactors, interactors, and receptors of an organism and its main collaborators in maintaining protein homeostasis (canonical function) are the ubiquitin–proteasome system and chaperone-mediated autophagy. The CS has also noncanonical functions, for instance, modulation of the IS with induction of proinflammatory cytokines. This deserves investigation because it may be at the core of neu-roinflammation, and elucidation of its mechanism will open roads toward developing efficacious treatments centered on molecular chaperones (i.e., chaperonotherapy). Here, we discuss information available on the role of three members of the CS—heat shock protein (Hsp)60, Hsp70, and Hsp90—in IS modulation and neuroinflammation. These three chaperones occur intra-and extracellularly, with the latter being the most likely involved in neuroinflammation because they can interact with the IS. We discuss some of the interactions, their consequences, and the molecules involved but many aspects are still incompletely elucidated, and we hope that this review will encourage research based on the data presented to pave the way for the development of chaperonotherapy. This may consist of blocking a chaperone that promotes destructive neuroinflammation or replacing or boosting a defective chaperone with cytoprotective activity against neurodegeneration. © 2021 by the authors.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/14416