JournalFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience
PublisherFrontiers Media S.A.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, for which aging remains the major risk factor. Aging is under a consistent pressure of increasing brain entropy (BEN) due to the progressive brain deteriorations. Noticeably, the brain constantly consumes a large amount of energy to maintain its functional integrity, likely creating or maintaining a big “reserve” to counteract the high entropy. Malfunctions of this latent reserve may indicate a critical point of disease progression. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in aging and AD and to test an inverse-U-shape BEN model: BEN increases with age and AD pathology in normal aging but decreases in the AD continuum. BEN was measured with resting state fMRI and compared across aging and the AD continuum. Associations of BEN with age, education, clinical symptoms, and pathology were examined by multiple regression. The analysis results highlighted resting BEN in the default mode network, medial temporal lobe, and prefrontal cortex and showed that: (1) BEN increased with age and pathological deposition in normal aging but decreased with age and pathological deposition in the AD continuum; (2) AD showed catastrophic BEN reduction, which was related to more severe cognitive impairment and daily function disability; and (3) BEN decreased with education years in normal aging, but not in the AD continuum. BEN evolution follows an inverse-U trajectory when AD progresses from normal aging to AD dementia. Education is beneficial for suppressing the entropy increase potency in normal aging.
SponsorsData collection and sharing for this project was funded by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI; National Institutes of Health Grant U01 AG024904) and DOD ADNI (Department of Defense award number W81XWH-12-2-0012).
Rights/TermsCopyright © 2020 Wang.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/14175
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