A Systematic Review of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS) in Canines and Non-human Primates: Acute Mixed Neutron/Gamma vs. Reference Quality Radiations
PublisherWolters Kluwer Health
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AbstractA systematic review of relevant studies that determined the dose response relationship (DRR) for the hematopoietic (H) acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in the canine relative to radiation quality of mixed neutron:gamma radiations, dose rate, and exposure uniformity relative to selected reference radiation exposure has not been performed. The datasets for rhesus macaques exposure to mixed neutron:gamma radiation are used herein as a species comparative reference to the canine database. The selection of data cohorts was made from the following sources: Ovid Medline (1957-present), PubMed (1954-present), AGRICOLA (1976-present), Web of Science (1954-present), and US HHS RePORT (2002-present). The total number of hits across all search sites was 3,077. Several referenced, unpublished, non-peer reviewed government reports were unavailable for review. Primary published studies using canines, beagles, and mongrels were evaluated to provide an informative and consistent review of mixed neutron:gamma radiation effects to establish the DRRs for the H-ARS. Secondary and tertiary studies provided additional information on the hematologic response or the effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells, radiation dosimetry, absorbed dose, and organ dose. The LD50/30 values varied with neutron quality, exposure aspect, and mixed neutron:gamma ratio. The reference radiation quality varied from 250 kVp or 1-2 MeV x radiation and Co gamma radiation. A summary of a published review of a data set describing the DRR in rhesus macaques for mixed neutron:gamma radiation exposure in the H-ARS is included for a comparative reference to the canine dataset. The available evidence provided a reliable and extensive database that characterized the DRR for the H-ARS in canines and young rhesus macaques exposed to mixed neutron:gamma radiations of variable energy relative to 250 kVp, 1-2 MeV x radiation and Co gamma, and uniform and non-uniform total-body irradiation without the benefit of medical management. The mixed neutron:gamma radiation showed an energy-dependent RBE of ~ 1.0 to 2.0 relative to reference radiation exposure within both species. A marginal database described the DRR for the gastrointestinal (GI)-ARS. Medical management showed benefit in both species relative to the mixed neutron:gamma as well as exposure to reference radiation. The DRR for the H-ARS was characterized by steep slopes and relative LD50/30 values that reflected the radiation quality, exposure aspect, and dose rate over a range in time from 1956-2012.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/13936