Bone health effects of androgen-deprivation therapy and androgen receptor inhibitors in patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
JournalProstate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
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AbstractBackground: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, resulting in increased fracture risk. Patients with prostate cancer may have multiple risk factors contributing to bone fragility: advanced age, hypogonadism, and long-term use of androgen-deprivation therapy. Despite absence of metastatic disease, patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer receiving newer androgen receptor inhibitors can experience decreased bone mineral density. A systematic approach to bone health care has been hampered by a simplistic view that does not account for heterogeneity among prostate cancer patients or treatments they receive. This review aims to raise awareness in oncology and urology communities regarding the complexity of bone health, and to provide a framework for management strategies for patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer receiving androgen receptor inhibitor treatment. Methods: We searched peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database using key words “androgen-deprivation therapy,” “androgen receptor inhibitors,” “bone,” “bone complications,” and “nonmetastatic prostate cancer” from 2000 to present. Results: We discuss how androgen inhibition affects bone health in patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. We present data from phase 3 trials on the three approved androgen receptor inhibitors with regard to effects on bone. Finally, we present management strategies for maintenance of bone health. Conclusions: In patients with nonmetastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer, aging, and antiandrogen therapy contribute to bone fragility. Newer androgen receptor inhibitors were associated with falls or fractures in a small subset of patients. Management guidelines include regular assessment of bone density, nutritional guidance, and use of antiresorptive bone health agents when warranted. © 2020, The Author(s).
Keywordandrogen deprivation therapy
androgen receptor inhibitors
Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/13882