JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
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AbstractHyperuricemia, or elevated serum urate, causes urate kidney stones and gout and also increases the incidence of many other conditions including renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. As we gain mechanistic insight into how urate contributes to human disease, a clear sex difference has emerged in the physiological regulation of urate homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of urate as a disease risk factor and how being of the female sex appears protective. Further, we review the mechanisms of renal handling of urate and the significant contributions from powerful genome-wide association studies of serum urate. We also explore the role of sex in the regulation of specific renal urate transporters and the power of new animal models of hyperuricemia to inform on the role of sex and hyperuricemia in disease pathogenesis. Finally, we advocate the use of sex differences in urate handling as a potent tool in gaining a further understanding of physiological regulation of urate homeostasis and for presenting new avenues for treating the constellation of urate related pathologies.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85086754027&doi=10.3390%2fijms21124269&partnerID=40&md5=dd09c7345fabdc282ae1bc29a8383207; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/13184