Reviving the "Moore Swab": a Classic Environmental Surveillance Tool Involving Filtration of Flowing Surface Water and Sewage Water To Recover Typhoidal Salmonella Bacteria
JournalApplied and environmental microbiology
PublisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe "Moore swab" is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" microorganisms, which are subsequently isolated and confirmed using appropriate laboratory methods. Continuous filtration is valuable for the isolation of transiently present pathogens such as human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. The technique was first proposed (1948) to trace Salmonella Paratyphi B systematically through sewers to pinpoint the residence of a chronic carrier responsible for sporadic outbreaks of paratyphoid fever. From 1948 to 1986, Moore swabs proved instrumental to identify long-term human reservoirs (chronic carriers) and long-cycle environmental transmission pathways of S Typhi and Paratyphi, for example, to decipher endemic transmission in Santiago, Chile, during the 1980s. Despite limitations such as intermittent shedding of typhoidal Salmonella by humans and the effects of dilution, S Typhi and S Paratyphi have been recovered from sewers, surface waters, irrigation canals, storm drains, flush toilets, and septic tanks by using Moore swabs. Driven by the emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant S Typhi and S Paratyphi A strains that limit treatment options, several countries are embarking on accelerated typhoid control programs using vaccines and environmental interventions. Moore swabs, which are regaining appreciation as important components of the public health/environmental microbiology toolbox, can enhance environmental surveillance for typhoidal Salmonella, thereby contributing to the control of typhoid fever. Copyright 2020 Sikorski and Levine.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85086748930&doi=10.1128%2fAEM.00060-20&partnerID=40&md5=7f72daa4845fb9d1a46736decc53442e; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/13183
- The use of Moore swabs for isolation of Salmonella typhi from irrigation water in Santiago, Chile.
- Authors: Sears SD, Ferreccio C, Levine MM, Cordano AM, Monreal J, Black RE, D'Ottone K, Rowe B
- Issue date: 1984 Apr
- Sensitivity of Moore sewer swabs for isolating Salmonella typhi.
- Authors: Sears SD, Ferreccio C, Levine MM
- Issue date: 1986 Feb
- High prevalence of typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars excreting food handlers in Karachi-Pakistan: a probable factor for regional typhoid endemicity.
- Authors: Siddiqui TR, Bibi S, Mustufa MA, Ayaz SM, Khan A
- Issue date: 2015 Dec 8
- Molecular mechanism of azithromycin resistance among typhoidal Salmonella strains in Bangladesh identified through passive pediatric surveillance.
- Authors: Hooda Y, Sajib MSI, Rahman H, Luby SP, Bondy-Denomy J, Santosham M, Andrews JR, Saha SK, Saha S
- Issue date: 2019 Nov
- Genetic determinants and polymorphisms specific for human-adapted serovars of Salmonella enterica that cause enteric fever.
- Authors: Tracz DM, Tabor H, Jerome M, Ng LK, Gilmour MW
- Issue date: 2006 Jun