Dementia, Depression, and Associated Brain Inflammatory Mechanisms after Spinal Cord Injury
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AbstractEvaluation of the chronic effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) has long focused on sensorimotor deficits, neuropathic pain, bladder/bowel dysfunction, loss of sexual function, and emotional distress. Although not well appreciated clinically, SCI can cause cognitive impairment including deficits in learning and memory, executive function, attention, and processing speed; it also commonly leads to depression. Recent large-scale longitudinal population-based studies indicate that patients with isolated SCI (without concurrent brain injury) are at a high risk of dementia associated with substantial cognitive impairments. Yet, little basic research has addressed potential mechanisms for cognitive impairment and depression after injury. In addition to contributing to disability in their own right, these changes can adversely affect rehabilitation and recovery and reduce quality of life. Here, we review clinical and experimental work on the complex and varied responses in the brain following SCI. We also discuss potential mechanisms responsible for these less well-examined, important SCI consequences. In addition, we outline the existing and developing therapeutic options aimed at reducing SCI-induced brain neuroinflammation and post-injury cognitive and emotional impairments.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85086355175&doi=10.3390%2fcells9061420&partnerID=40&md5=cef91f63dd46487c5f4f7b1c05059d79; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/13127
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