Novel frameshift variant in MYL2 reveals molecular differences between dominant and recessive forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
PublisherPublic Library of Science
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AbstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by thickening of the ventricular muscle without dilation and is often associated with dominant pathogenic variants in cardiac sarcomeric protein genes. Here, we report a family with two infants diagnosed with infantile-onset HCM and mitral valve dysplasia that led to death before one year of age. Using exome sequencing, we discovered that one of the affected children had a homozygous frameshift variant in Myosin light chain 2 (MYL2:NM_000432.3:c.431_432delCT: p.Pro144Argfs*57;MYL2-fs), which alters the last 20 amino acids of the protein and is predicted to impact the most C-terminal of the three EF-hand domains in MYL2. The parents are unaffected heterozygous carriers of the variant and the variant is absent in control cohorts from gnomAD. The absence of the phenotype in carriers and the infantile presentation of severe HCM is in contrast to HCM associated with dominant MYL2 variants. Immunohistochemical analysis of the ventricular muscle of the deceased patient with the MYL2-fs variant showed a marked reduction of MYL2 expression compared to an unaffected control. In vitro overexpression studies further indicate that the MYL2-fs variant is actively degraded. In contrast, an HCM-associated missense variant (MYL2:p.Gly162Arg) and three other MYL2 stop-gain variants (p.E22*, p.K62*, p.E97*) that result in loss of the EF domains are stably expressed but show impaired localization. The degradation of the MYL2-fs can be rescued by inhibiting the cell's proteasome function supporting a post-translational effect of the variant. In vivo rescue experiments with a Drosophila MYL2-homolog (Mlc2) knockdown model indicate that neither the MYL2-fs nor the MYL2:p.Gly162Arg variant supports normal cardiac function. The tools that we have generated provide a rapid screening platform for functional assessment of variants of unknown significance in MYL2. Our study supports an autosomal recessive model of inheritance for MYL2 loss-of-function variants in infantile HCM and highlights the variant-specific molecular differences found in MYL2-associated cardiomyopathy.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85086052384&doi=10.1371%2fjournal.pgen.1008639&partnerID=40&md5=1fe52ecc168d36a3669da795b241cac4; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/13098
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