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dc.contributor.authorOnofrio, M.D.
dc.contributor.authorMallet, C.R.
dc.contributor.authorPlace, A.R.
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-28T18:41:21Z
dc.date.available2020-05-28T18:41:21Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85084786049&doi=10.3390%2ftoxins12050322&partnerID=40&md5=1a4563607598e2ebfd0e69f022200a78
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/12887
dc.description.abstractMany detection methods for phycotoxins, bioactive compounds produced by harmful algae, focus on one compound or a class of related compounds. Multiple harmful algal species often co-occur in the environment, however, emphasizing the need to analyze for the presence of multiple groups of marine and freshwater phycotoxins in environmental samples, e.g., extracts from solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT). Two methods were developed to screen for 13 phycotoxins (microcystin-RR, -LR, -YR, azaspiracid-1, -2, karlotoxin 3, goniodomin A, brevetoxin-2, yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2, dinophysistoxin-1, -2, and okadaic acid) in organic SPATT extracts using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) equipped with a trapping dimension (trap) and at-column dilution (ACD). The performance of each compound under 36 combinations of chromatographic conditions was characterized, and two final methods, acidic and basic, were selected based on peak shapes, signal intensities, resolution, and the separation in time of positive and negative MS ionization modes. Injection volumes of up to 1 mL were possible through trap/ACD technology, resulting in limits of detection between 0.001 and 0.05 µg/L across the analytes. Benefits highlighted in this study, beyond the improved detection limits and co-detection of multiple toxin groups, include the ability to inject samples of 100% organic solvent, ensuring analyte stability and streamlining workflow through the elimination of laborious sample preparation steps.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050322en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMDPI, AGen_US
dc.relation.ispartofToxins
dc.subjectat-column dilutionen_US
dc.subjectazaspiracidsen_US
dc.subjectbrevetoxinsen_US
dc.subjectmass spectrometryen_US
dc.subjectmicrocystinsen_US
dc.subjectokadaic aciden_US
dc.subjectpectenotoxinsen_US
dc.subjectphycotoxinsen_US
dc.subjectSPATTen_US
dc.subjectUPLC-MS/MSen_US
dc.titleA Screening Tool for the Direct Analysis of Marine and Freshwater Phycotoxins in Organic SPATT Extracts from the Chesapeake Bayen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/toxins12050322
dc.identifier.pmid32414148


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