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dc.contributor.authorKhoury, Z.H.
dc.contributor.authorVila, T.
dc.contributor.authorPuthran, T.R.
dc.contributor.authorSultan, A.S.
dc.contributor.authorMontelongo-Jauregui, D.
dc.contributor.authorMelo, M.A.S.
dc.contributor.authorJabra-Rizk, M.A.
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-14T18:36:17Z
dc.date.available2020-04-14T18:36:17Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85082554668&doi=10.3389%2ffmicb.2020.00307&partnerID=40&md5=07a2f51940d16bb18c2b6d09e915ca9e
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/12572
dc.description.abstractThe oral cavity is a complex environment harboring diverse microbial species that often co-exist within biofilms formed on oral surfaces. Within a biofilm, inter-species interactions can be synergistic in that the presence of one organism generates a niche for another enhancing colonization. Among these species are the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans and the bacterial species Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agents of oral candidiasis and dental caries, respectively. Recent studies have reported enhanced prevalence of C. albicans in children with caries indicating potential clinical implications for this fungal-bacterial interaction. In this study, we aimed to specifically elucidate the role of C. albicans-derived polysaccharide biofilm matrix components in augmenting S. mutans colonization and mixed biofilm formation. Comparative evaluations of single and mixed species biofilms demonstrated significantly enhanced S. mutans retention in mixed biofilms with C. albicans. Further, S. mutans single species biofilms were enhanced upon exogenous supplementation with purified matrix material derived from C. albicans biofilms. Similarly, growth in C. albicans cell-free spent biofilm culture media enhanced S. mutans single species biofilm formation, however, the observed increase in S. mutans biofilms was significantly affected upon enzymatic digestion of polysaccharides in spent media, identifying C. albicans secreted polysaccharides as a key factor in mediating mixed biofilm formation. The enhanced S. mutans biofilms mediated by the various C. albicans effectors was also demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Importantly, a clinically relevant mouse model of oral co-infection was adapted to demonstrate the C. albicans-mediated enhanced S. mutans colonization in a host. Analyses of harvested tissue and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated significantly higher S. mutans retention on teeth and tongues of co-infected mice compared to mice infected only with S. mutans. Collectively, the findings from this study strongly indicate that the secretion of polysacharides from C. albicans in the oral environment may impact the development of S. mutans biofilms, ultimately increasing dental caries and, therefore, Candida oral colonization should be considered as a factor in evaluating the risk of caries. Copyright 2020 The Authors.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded by the National Institute of Health under award number R21DE028693 (NIDCR) to MJ-R.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00307en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Media S.A.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Microbiology
dc.subjectCandida albicansen_US
dc.subjectdental cariesen_US
dc.subjectfungal-bacteria interactionsen_US
dc.subjectmatrixen_US
dc.subjectmixed-biofilmsen_US
dc.subjectpolysaccharideen_US
dc.subjectStreptococcus mutansen_US
dc.titleThe Role of Candida albicans Secreted Polysaccharides in Augmenting Streptococcus mutans Adherence and Mixed Biofilm Formation: In vitro and in vivo Studiesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fmicb.2020.00307


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