• COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Among US Parents: A Nationally Representative Survey.

      Hammershaimb, E Adrianne; Cole, Lyndsey D; Liang, Yuanyuan; Hendrich, Megan A; Das, Dhiman; Petrin, Robert; Cataldi, Jessica R; O'Leary, Sean T; Campbell, James D (Oxford University Press, 2022-06-24)
      Background: Little was known about US parental attitudes, beliefs, and intentions surrounding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines for children before their introduction. Methods: An online cross-sectional nationally representative survey of US parents/guardians of children < 18 years old via Ipsos KnowledgePanel, fielded from October 26, 2021 to November 30, 2021. Results: Response rate was 64.2% (3230/5034). For children ages 0-4 years, 51.5% of parents were likely to have their children vaccinated, and for ages 5-11 and 12-17, 54.0% and 69.7% of parents, respectively, reported they were likely to vaccinate or had already vaccinated their children. Among respondents with unvaccinated children, 25.2% (ages 0-4) and 22.0% (ages 5-11) reported they would seek COVID-19 vaccination for their children as soon as authorization occurred. Factors associated with willingness to have children receive a COVID-19 vaccine were: belief in benefits of COVID-19 vaccination (odds ratio [OR] = 6.44, 5.68, 4.57 in ages 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 respectively), acceptance of routine childhood vaccines (OR = 6.42, 5.48, 1.76), parental COVID-19 vaccination (OR = 1.85, 3.70, 6.16), perceptions that pediatric COVID-19 is severe (OR = 1.89, 1.72, 1.35), Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 2.07, 2.29, 2.60), influenza vaccine acceptance (OR = 1.07, 0.88, 1.62), presence of children of another age group in the household (OR = 0.71, 0.71, 0.65), and attitudinal barriers to COVID-19 vaccination (OR = 0.30, 0.26, 0.49). Conclusions: Belief in the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination and acceptance of routine childhood vaccines are the strongest predictors of intention to vaccinate children. Further research is needed to track how parental attitudes change as more data about pediatric COVID-19 vaccines become available and how intentions translate into pediatric vaccine uptake.
    • Ensuring High and Equitable COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Among Patients With IBD

      Caldera, Freddy; Balzora, Sophie; Hayney, Mary S; Farraye, Francis A; Cross, Raymond K (Oxford University Press, 2021-05-20)
      The recent emergency use authorization of a third COVID-19 vaccine means that most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will soon be eligible to be vaccinated. Gastroenterology clinicians should be prepared to address patients' concerns regarding safety and efficacy of vaccines. They should also strongly recommend that all their patients be vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they should be prepared to educate patients about logistics that will result in successful vaccination completion. All these measures will be crucial to ensure high uptake among their patients with IBD. © 2021 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation.
    • Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine among Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

      Shoar, Saeed; Prada-Ruiz, Adriana C Carolina; Patarroyo-Aponte, Gabriel; Chaudhary, Ashok; Sadegh Asadi, Mohammad (SAGE Publications Inc., 2022-06-05)
      BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HTX) recipients are at a significantly higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes, due to chronic immunosuppression and co-existence of other chronic conditions, when contracting the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is currently the most promising measure for the prevention of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) among solid organ transplant recipients, the extent of immune response and its protective efficacy among patients receiving HTX has not been sufficiently studied. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature by inquiring PubMed/Medline to identify original studies among HTX recipients, who had received at least one dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Data on the measured humoral or cellular immune response was collected from all the eligible studies. Factors associated with a poor immune response were further investigated within these studies. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies comprising 563 HTX recipients were included. The average age of the study participants was 60.8 years. Sixty four percent of the study population were male. Ninety percent of the patients had received an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer/ BNT162b2 or Moderna/mRNA-1273). A positive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was variably reported in 0% to 100% of the patients. Older age (> 65 years), vaccine dose (first, second, or third), time since HTX to the first dose of the vaccine, the time interval between the latest dose of the vaccine and measurement of the immune response, and the type of immunosuppressive regimen were all indicated as potential determinants of a robust immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CONCLUSION: HTX recipients demonstrate a weaker immune response to the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 compared to the general population. Older age, anti-metabolite agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, and vaccination during the first year following the HTX have been indicated as potential determinants of a poor immune response.
    • Warp Speed for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccines: Why Are Children Stuck in Neutral?

      Anderson, Evan J; Campbell, James D; Creech, C Buddy; Frenck, Robert; Kamidani, Satoshi; Munoz, Flor M; Nachman, Sharon; Spearman, Paul (Oxford University Press, 2020-09-18)
      While adult clinical trials of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have moved quickly into phase 3 clinical trials, clinical trials have not started in children in the United States. The direct COVID-19 impact upon children is greater than that observed for a number of other pathogens for which we now have effective pediatric vaccines. Additionally, the role of children in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has clearly been underappreciated. Carefully conducted phase 2 clinical trials can adequately address potential COVID-19 vaccine safety concerns. Delaying phase 2 vaccine clinical trials in children will delay our recovery from COVID-19 and unnecessarily prolong its impact upon children's education, health, and emotional well-being, and equitable access to opportunities for development and social success. Given the potential direct and indirect benefits of pediatric vaccination, implementation of phase 2 clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines should begin now.
    • Willingness to Get a COVID-19 Vaccine and Its Potential Predictors in Costa Rica: A Cross-Sectional Study

      Faerron Guzmán, Carlos A; Montero-Zamora, Pablo; Bolaños-Palmieri, Carolina; Araya-Amador, Juliana; Benavides-Rawson, Jorge; Ávila-Agüero, María L (Cureus, Inc., 2021-10-15)
      Since 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on morbidity and mortality around the world. As one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions for preventing infectious diseases, immunization against SARS-CoV-2, is at the moment the most effective strategy for controlling the current pandemic. Despite the high vaccine acceptance rates that countries such as Costa Rica have shown in the past, the public acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine is still uncertain. The purpose of this study was to examine adults' willingness to get a novel COVID-19 vaccine and its potential predictors in Costa Rica. We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising a sample of 4717 adult participants living in Costa Rica who participated in a voluntary electronic survey regarding their intent to get a future COVID-19 vaccine. Results suggest that a high percentage (86.1%) of Costa Ricans aged 18 or more would be willing to be vaccinated once a safe and effective vaccine is approved and distributed in the country. Some relevant significant predictors of willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine in Costa Rica were higher income, being male, work in the health care sector, and having a relative or a close acquaintance diagnosed with COVID-19. Our findings suggest that it is essential to concentrate efforts on the immediate development of culturally appropriate communication, dissemination, and implementation strategies to maximize immunization against SARS-CoV-2 in Costa Rica.