• Clinical Application of Serologic Testing for Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Contemporary Cardiovascular Practice

      Damluji, Abdulla A; Christenson, Robert H; deFilippi, Christopher (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-02-23)
      In patients with cardiovascular disease, the use of antibody or serological testing is frequently encountered as the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to evolve. Antibody testing detects one form of the acquired immunological response to a pathogenic antigen. Once the immune system recognizes a viral antigen or a protein as foreign, a humoral immune response is initiated, which is generally detected by laboratory testing in 5 to 10 days after the initial exposure. While this information is critical from a public health perspective to implement surveillance systems and measures to limit infectivity and transmission rate, the misinterpretation of serologic testing in clinical practice has generated much confusion in the medical community because some attempted to apply these strategies to individual patient’s treatment schemes. In this mini-review, we examine the different serologic-based testing strategies, how to interpret their results, and their public health impact at the population level, which are critical to contain the transmission of the virus in the community within a busy cardiovascular practice. Further, this review will also be particularly helpful as vaccination and immune therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 become available to the society as a whole. © 2020 The Authors.
    • Oral Polio Vaccine to Protect Against COVID-19: Out of the Box Strategies?

      Malave Sanchez, Melanie; Saleeb, Paul; Kottilil, Shyam; Mathur, Poonam (Oxford University Press, 2021-07-09)
      The global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has raised significant concerns of developing rapid, broad strategies to protect the vulnerable population and prevent morbidity and mortality. However, even with an aggressive approach, controlling the pandemic has been challenging, with concerns of emerging variants that likely escape vaccines, nonadherence of social distancing/preventive measures by the public, and challenges in rapid implementation of a global vaccination program that involves mass production, distribution, and execution. In this review, we revisit the utilization of attenuated vaccinations, such as the oral polio vaccine, which are safe, easy to administer, and likely provide cross-protection against respiratory pathogens. We discuss the rationale and data supporting its use and detail description of available vaccines that could be repurposed for curtailing the pandemic.