• Community respiratory viruses in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection

      King, J.C. (Elsevier Inc., 1997)
      Respiratory viruses, particularly influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses, are ubiquitous pathogens among humans, especially among young children. However, relatively little is known about the impact of these common infections on individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A review of the literature identifies three key areas that need further exploration. First, moderate-to-severe and even fatal lower respiratory viral illnesses in HIV-infected individuals have been reported. In general, the clinical presentation of these respiratory viral infections in persons with HIV infection is similar to their presentation in individuals without HIV infection. The major exception is the occurrence of fulminant, and often fatal, disseminated adenovirus infection in adults and children with HIV disease. Despite these reports, no information is available regarding the frequency of moderate-to-severe respiratory viral illnesses in individuals with HIV infection. Epidemiologic studies of respiratory viral illnesses in cohorts of HIV-infected adults and children are needed. Second, prolonged shedding of respiratory viruses for weeks and even months has been documented in HIV-infected adults and children. The frequency of prolonged shedding in this population has not been well defined, but data from a small newborn cohort study suggest that, at least for RSV, prolonged shedding is common. Prolonged respiratory viral shedding has implications for infection control in medical facilities where HIV-infected individuals are treated and in nursing homes, child care centers, and group foster homes that provide care for HIV-infected individuals. Therapies to help eliminate these chronic viral infections should be explored. Finally, indirect evidence suggests that respiratory viral infection may result in changes in HIV replication and, theoretically, HIV disease progression. Increased HIV-1 replication has been demonstrated in vitro in T lymphoma cells exposed to genetic material from adenovirus. Increased HIV replication in peripheral blood from adults following inactivated influenza vaccination has been reported. The impact of natural respiratory viral infection (and perhaps vaccination against these pathogens) on HIV replication and disease progression will be an important area of study.