• Infection of the basal ganglia by a murine coronavirus

      Fishman, P.S.; Gass, J.S.; Swoveland, P.T. (1985)
      The coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59), causes mild encephalitis and chronic demyelination. Immunohistochemical techniques showed that MHV-A59-infected C57BL/6 mice contained dense deposits of viral antigen in the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra, with fewer signs of infection in other regions of the brain. The animals showed extra- and intracellular vacuolation, neuronal loss, and gliosis in the subthalamic-nigral region. Such localization is unprecedented among known viral encephalitides of humans and other species. This infection by a member of a viral class capable of causing both encephalitis and persistent infection in several species may be related to postencephalitic parkinsonism.
    • SARS-CoV-2 and nervous system: From pathogenesis to clinical manifestation

      Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Umeton, Raffaella Pizzolato; Mohit, Babak; Davoudi, Vahid; Hajighasemi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Mehdi (Elsevier Ltd., 2020-11-07)
      Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a growing body of evidence indicates that besides common COVID-19 symptoms, patients may develop various neurological manifestations affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as skeletal muscles. These manifestations can occur prior, during and even after the onset of COVID-19 general symptoms. In this Review, we discuss the possible neuroimmunological mechanisms underlying the nervous system and skeletal muscle involvement, and viral triggered neuroimmunological conditions associated with SARS-CoV-2, as well as therapeutic approaches that have been considered for these specific complications worldwide