• Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Invasive Fungal Infection.

      Baddley, John W; Thompson, George R; Chen, Sharon C-A; White, P Lewis; Johnson, Melissa D; Nguyen, M Hong; Schwartz, Ilan S; Spec, Andrej; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Jackson, Brendan R; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-11-16)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can become complicated by secondary invasive fungal infections (IFIs), stemming primarily from severe lung damage and immunologic deficits associated with the virus or immunomodulatory therapy. Other risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes, structural lung disease and/or other comorbidities, and fungal colonization. Opportunistic IFI following severe respiratory viral illness has been increasingly recognized, most notably with severe influenza. There have been many reports of fungal infections associated with COVID-19, initially predominated by pulmonary aspergillosis, but with recent emergence of mucormycosis, candidiasis, and endemic mycoses. These infections can be challenging to diagnose and are associated with poor outcomes. The reported incidence of IFI has varied, often related to heterogeneity in patient populations, surveillance protocols, and definitions used for classification of fungal infections. Herein, we review IFI complicating COVID-19 and address knowledge gaps related to epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19-associated fungal infections. © 2021 The Author(s) 2021.
    • Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Invasive Fungal Infection

      Baddley, John W; Thompson, George R; Chen, Sharon C -A; White, P Lewis; Johnson, Melissa D; Nguyen, M Hong; Schwartz, Ilan S; Spec, Andrej; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Jackson, Brendan R; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-11-16)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can become complicated by secondary invasive fungal infections (IFIs), stemming primarily from severe lung damage and immunologic deficits associated with the virus or immunomodulatory therapy. Other risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes, structural lung disease and/or other comorbidities, and fungal colonization. Opportunistic IFI following severe respiratory viral illness has been increasingly recognized, most notably with severe influenza. There have been many reports of fungal infections associated with COVID-19, initially predominated by pulmonary aspergillosis, but with recent emergence of mucormycosis, candidiasis, and endemic mycoses. These infections can be challenging to diagnose and are associated with poor outcomes. The reported incidence of IFI has varied, often related to heterogeneity in patient populations, surveillance protocols, and definitions used for classification of fungal infections. Herein, we review IFI complicating COVID-19 and address knowledge gaps related to epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19-associated fungal infections.
    • Pulmonary aspergillosis and cryptococcosis as a complication of COVID-19.

      Traver, Edward C; Malavé Sánchez, Melanie (Elsevier, 2022-01-06)
      Invasive fungal infections may complicate infection by SARS-CoV-2 and increase morbidity and mortality. A 59-year-old man with multiple medical comorbidities was transferred to our hospital for worsening hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and received high-dose corticosteroids and 2 doses of cyclophosphamide. He was diagnosed with pulmonary aspergillosis and cryptococcosis by culture of a bronchoalveolar lavage sample. This patient's secondary infections were likely due to treatment with immunosuppressants, his comorbidities, and his prolonged critical illness. © 2022 The Authors