• Pharmacotherapeutics of SARS-CoV-2 Infections

      Kevadiya, Bhavesh D; Machhi, Jatin; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Oleynikov, Maxim D; Blomberg, Wilson R; Bajwa, Neha; Soni, Dhruvkumar; Das, Srijanee; Hasan, Mahmudul; Patel, Milankumar; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-01-06)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 38 million people world-wide by person to person transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therapeutic and preventative strategies for SARS-CoV-2 remains a significant challenge. Within the past several months, effective treatment options have emerged and now include repurposed antivirals, corticosteroids and virus-specific antibodies. The latter has included convalescence plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Complete viral eradication will be achieved through an effective, safe and preventative vaccine. To now provide a comprehensive summary for each of the pharmacotherapeutics and preventative strategies being offered or soon to be developed for SARS-CoV-2. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
    • Respiratory viruses

      Weston, S.; Frieman, M.B. (Elsevier, 2019)
      This article is an overview of the most clinically important respiratory viruses including the recently emerged highly pathogenic coronaviruses and other viruses that are transmitted via the respiratory tract. In this article, we highlight a description of the agent, its life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management of the infection. The viruses in this article are respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, seasonal and emerging coronaviruses, adenovirus, bocavirus and other viruses associated with the respiratory tract for their life cycle.
    • Review of Emerging Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019

      Barlow, A.; Landolf, K.M.; Yeung, S.Y.A.; Heavner, J.J.; Claassen, C.W.; Heavner, M.S. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2020)
      The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacological management of patients with COVID‐19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immune modulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS‐CoV‐2. Critically ill patients with COVID‐19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID‐19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.
    • A review on sars-cov-2 virology, pathophysiology, animal models, and anti-viral interventions

      Neerukonda, S.N.; Katneni, U. (MDPI AG, 2020)
      Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly pathogenic and transmissible CoV that is presently plaguing the global human population and economy. No proven effective antiviral therapy or vaccine currently exists, and supportive care remains to be the cornerstone treatment. Through previous lessons learned from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV studies, scientific groups worldwide have rapidly expanded the knowledge pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 virology that includes in vitro and in vivo models for testing of antiviral therapies and randomized clinical trials. In the present narrative, we review SARS-CoV-2 virology, clinical features, pathophysiology, and animal models with a specific focus on the antiviral and adjunctive therapies currently being tested or that require testing in animal models and randomized clinical trials. Copyright 2020 by the authors.