• Prevalence and prognosis of increased pancreatic enzymes in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Yang, Feng; Xu, Yecheng; Dong, Yinlei; Huang, Yuting; Fu, Yunting; Li, Tian; Sun, Chenyu; Pandanaboyana, Sanjay; Windsor, John A; Fu, Deliang (Elsevier, 2022-03-25)
      Introduction: The prevalence of increased pancreatic enzymes (elevated serum amylase and/or lipase) and its relationship to clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is not known. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies reporting prevalence and impact of increased pancreatic enzymes (defined as an elevation in amylase and/or lipase levels above the upper limit of normal [ULN] value) in COVID-19 was undertaken. Results: A total of 36,496 patients from 21 studies were included for this meta-analysis. The overall prevalence and mortality for increased pancreatic enzymes (>ULN) in COVID-19 were 25.4% (95% CI, 15.8%-36.2%) and 34.6% (95% CI, 25.5%-44.4%), respectively. The overall prevalence and mortality for increased pancreatic enzymes (>3 × ULN) were 6.1% (95% CI, 3.6%-9.2%) and 39.2% (95% CI, 18.7%-61.6%), respectively. Patients with increased pancreatic enzymes, including elevated serum lipase or amylase of either type, had worse clinical outcomes, including need for ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Discussion: Increased pancreatic enzymes is frequent and may exacerbate the consequences of COVID-19 infection.