• SARS-CoV-2 and Acute Cerebrovascular Events: An Overview

      Ghasemi, Mehdi; Umeton, Raffaella Pizzolato; Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Mohit, Babak; Rahimian, Nasrin; Eshaghhosseiny, Niloofarsadaat; Davoudi, Vahid (MDPI AG, 2021-07-29)
      Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, accumulating evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection may be associated with various neurological manifestations, including acute cerebrovascular events (i.e., stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis). These events can occur prior to, during and even after the onset of COVID-19's general symptoms. Although the mechanisms underlying the cerebrovascular complications in patients with COVID-19 are yet to be fully elucidated, the hypercoagulability state, inflammation and altered angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) signaling in association with SARS-CoV-2 may play key roles. ACE-2 plays a critical role in preserving heart and brain homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of the possible mechanisms underlying the acute cerebrovascular events in patients with COVID-19, and we review the current epidemiological studies and case reports of neurovascular complications in association with SARS-CoV-2, as well as the relevant therapeutic approaches that have been considered worldwide. As the number of published COVID-19 cases with cerebrovascular events is growing, prospective studies would help gather more valuable insights into the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular events, effective therapies, and the factors predicting poor functional outcomes related to such events in COVID-19 patients.