• Decreased PRESET-Score corresponds with improved survival in COVID-19 veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

      Powell, Elizabeth K; Lankford, Allison S; Ghneim, Mira; Rabin, Joseph; Haase, Daniel J; Dahi, Siamak; Deatrick, Kristopher B; Krause, Eric; Bittle, Gregory; Galvagno, Samuel M; et al. (2022-09-16)
      Introduction: The PREdiction of Survival on ECMO Therapy Score (PRESET-Score) predicts mortality while on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of our study was to assess the association between PRESET-Score and survival in a large COVID-19 VV ECMO cohort. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study of COVID-19 VV ECMO patients from 15 March 2020, to 30 November 2021. Univariable and Multivariable analyses were performed to assess patient survival and score differences. Results: A total of 105 patients were included in our analysis with a mean PRESET-Score of 6.74. Overall survival was 65.71%. The mean PRESET-Score was significantly lower in the survivor group (6.03 vs 8.11, p < 0.001). Patients with a PRESET-Score less than or equal to six had improved survival compared to those with a PRESET-Score greater than or equal to 8 (97.7% vs. 32.5%, p < 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression, a lower PRESET-Score was also predictive of survival (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.75, 4.63, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrate that lower PRESET scores are associated with improved survival. The utilization of this validated, quantifiable, and objective scoring system to help identify COVID-19 patients with the greatest potential to benefit from VV-ECMO appears feasible. The incorporation of the PRESET-Score into institutional ECMO candidacy guidelines can help insure and improve access of this limited healthcare resource to all critically ill patients.
    • Deep dissection of the antiviral immune profile of patients with COVID-19.

      Atanackovic, Djordje; Avila, Stephanie V; Lutfi, Forat; de Miguel-Perez, Diego; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Sanchez-Petitto, Gabriela; Vander Mause, Erica; Siglin, Jonathan; Baddley, John; Mannuel, Heather D; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-12-16)
      In light of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants potentially undermining humoral immunity, it is important to understand the fine specificity of the antiviral antibodies. We screened 20 COVID-19 patients for antibodies against 9 different SARS-CoV-2 proteins observing responses against the spike (S) proteins, the receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleocapsid (N) protein which were of the IgG1 and IgG3 subtypes. Importantly, mutations which typically occur in the B.1.351 "South African" variant, significantly reduced the binding of anti-RBD antibodies. Nine of 20 patients were critically ill and were considered high-risk (HR). These patients showed significantly higher levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and lower levels of CD4+ T cells expressing LAG-3 compared to standard-risk (SR) patients. HR patients evidenced significantly higher anti-S1/RBD IgG antibody levels and an increased neutralizing activity. Importantly, a large proportion of S protein-specific antibodies were glycosylation-dependent and we identified a number of immunodominant linear epitopes within the S1 and N proteins. Findings derived from this study will not only help us to identify the most relevant component of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune response but will also enable us to design more meaningful immunomonitoring methods for anti-COVID-19 vaccines.
    • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for COVID-19

      Sanford, Zachary; Madathil, Ronson J.; Deatrick, Kristopher B.; Tabatabai, Ali; Menaker, Jay; Galvagno, Samuel M.; Mazzeffi, Michael A.; Rabin, Joseph; Ghoreishi, Mehrdad; Rector, Raymond; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-21)
    • Mortality Risk Assessment in COVID-19 Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

      Tabatabai, Ali; Ghneim, Mira H; Kaczorowski, David J; Shah, Aakash; Dave, Sagar; Haase, Daniel J; Vesselinov, Roumen; Deatrick, Kristopher B; Rabin, Joseph; Rabinowitz, Ronald P; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-01-21)
      Background: A life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional management. Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (VV-ECMO) is used to support patients with ARDS in whom conventional management fails. Scoring systems to predict mortality in VV-ECMO remain unvalidated in COVID-19 ARDS. This report describes a large single-center experience with VV-ECMO in COVID-19 and assesses the utility of standard risk calculators. Methods: A retrospective review of a prospective database of all patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO cannulation between March 15 and June 27, 2020 at a single academic center was performed. Demographic, clinical, and ECMO characteristics were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; survivor and nonsurvivor cohorts were compared by using univariate and bivariate analyses. Results: Forty patients who had COVID-19 and underwent ECMO were identified. Of the 33 patients (82.5%) in whom ECMO had been discontinued at the time of analysis, 18 patients (54.5%) survived to hospital discharge, and 15 (45.5%) died during ECMO. Nonsurvivors presented with a statistically significant higher Prediction of Survival on ECMO Therapy (PRESET)-Score (mean ± SD, 8.33 ± 0.8 vs 6.17 ± 1.8; P = .001). The PRESET score demonstrated accurate mortality prediction. All patients with a PRESET-Score of 6 or lowers survived, and a score of 7 or higher was associated with a dramatic increase in mortality. Conclusions: These results suggest that favorable outcomes are possible in patients with COVID-19 who undergo ECMO at high-volume centers. This study demonstrated an association between the PRESET-Score and survival in patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO. Standard risk calculators may aid in appropriate selection of patients with COVID-19 ARDS for ECMO. © 2021
    • Safety and Efficacy of Tocilizumab 4 or 8 mg/kg in Hospitalized Patients With Moderate to Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

      Kumar, Princy N; Hernández-Sánchez, Jules; Nagel, Sandra; Feng, Yuning; Cai, Fang; Rabin, Joseph; Morse, Caryn G; Nadig, Nandita R; Ashraf, Obaid; Gotur, Deepa B; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-12-04)
      Background: Tocilizumab, an interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) antagonist monoclonal antibody, has shown efficacy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, but the optimal dose is unknown. Methods: Patients hospitalized for moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia were randomized 1:1 to receive standard of care treatment and 1-2 doses of intravenous tocilizumab 4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg (open-label). Primary pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic end points were serum concentrations of tocilizumab and soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R), IL-6, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP), from baseline to day 60. The secondary end point was safety. Key exploratory efficacy end points included clinical status, time to discharge, mortality rate, and incidence of mechanical ventilation. Results: Of 100 patients randomized, 49 received tocilizumab 4 mg/kg and 48 received 8 mg/kg. In pharmacokinetic and sIL-6R assessments, dose-dependent differences were seen in patients who received 1 or 2 doses of 4 or 8 mg/kg. Serum concentrations of IL-6, ferritin, and CRP and safety outcomes were comparable between groups. Through day 60, serious adverse events were reported in 30.6% and 25.0% of patients in the 4- and 8-mg/kg groups, respectively. Eight patients (16.3%) in the 4-mg/kg group and 6 (12.5%) in the 8-mg/kg group died. Exploratory time-to-event outcomes favored 8 mg/kg within the first 2 weeks. Conclusions: In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received tocilizumab 4 or 8 mg/kg, pharmacokinetic and sIL-6R assessments showed expected dose-dependent effects; pharmacodynamic assessments and safety were comparable, with no new safety signals. Further study is required before a lower dose of tocilizumab can be recommended in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical trials registration: NCT04363736.