• A Newcastle disease virus expressing a stabilized spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immune responses

      Sun, Weina; Liu, Yonghong; Amanat, Fatima; González-Domínguez, Irene; McCroskery, Stephen; Slamanig, Stefan; Coughlan, Lynda; Rosado, Victoria; Lemus, Nicholas; Jangra, Sonia; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-10-27)
      Rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines has helped mitigating SARS-CoV-2 spread, but more equitable allocation of vaccines is necessary to limit the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of additional variants of concern. We have developed a COVID-19 vaccine candidate based on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that can be manufactured at high yields in embryonated eggs. Here, we show that the NDV vector expressing an optimized spike antigen (NDV-HXP-S) is a versatile vaccine inducing protective antibody responses. NDV-HXP-S can be administered intramuscularly as inactivated vaccine or intranasally as live vaccine. We show that NDV-HXP-S GMP-produced in Vietnam, Thailand and Brazil is effective in the hamster model. Furthermore, we show that intramuscular vaccination with NDV-HXP-S reduces replication of tested variants of concerns in mice. The immunity conferred by NDV-HXP-S effectively counteracts SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice and hamsters.
    • Trivalent NDV-HXP-S Vaccine Protects against Phylogenetically Distant SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern in Mice.

      González-Domínguez, Irene; Martínez, Jose Luis; Slamanig, Stefan; Lemus, Nicholas; Liu, Yonghong; Lai, Tsoi Ying; Carreño, Juan Manuel; Singh, Gagandeep; Singh, Gagandeep; Schotsaert, Michael; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2022-06-06)
      Equitable access to vaccines is necessary to limit the global impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. In previous studies, we described the development of a low-cost vaccine based on a Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) expressing the prefusion-stabilized spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, named NDV-HXP-S. Here, we present the development of next-generation NDV-HXP-S variant vaccines, which express the stabilized spike protein of the Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants of concerns (VOC). Combinations of variant vaccines in bivalent, trivalent, and tetravalent formulations were tested for immunogenicity and protection in mice. We show that the trivalent preparation, composed of the ancestral Wuhan, Beta, and Delta vaccines, substantially increases the levels of protection and of cross-neutralizing antibodies against mismatched, phylogenetically distant variants, including the currently circulating Omicron variant. IMPORTANCE This manuscript describes an extended work on the Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based vaccine focusing on multivalent formulations of NDV vectors expressing different prefusion-stabilized versions of the spike proteins of different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC). We demonstrate here that this low-cost NDV platform can be easily adapted to construct vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Importantly, we show that the trivalent preparation, composed of the ancestral Wuhan, Beta, and Delta vaccines, substantially increases the levels of protection and of cross-neutralizing antibodies against mismatched, phylogenetically distant variants, including the currently circulating Omicron variant. We believe that these findings will help to guide efforts for pandemic preparedness against new variants in the future.