• A Case-Control Study of the 2019 Influenza Vaccine and Incidence of COVID-19 Among Healthcare Workers.

      Massoudi, Nilofar; Mohit, Babak (2020-11-26)
      Purpose: The influenza vaccine is essential in reducing the influenza burden, especially among healthcare workers (HCW). Experimental studies suggest both coronaviruses and influenza viruses engage with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) and tetraspanin antibodies, and that ACE 2 tetraspanin antibodies in turn may inhibit both coronavirus and low-pathogenicity influenza A viruses (LP IAV) infections. This study aims to investigate the potential clinical association between receiving the 2019 influenza vaccine and the incidence of COVID-19 among HCW. Methods: We designed a case–control study within a hospital setting in Iran when it became a center for treating COVID-19 patients. We collected data and calculated relevant incidence and associative measures among HCW who had received the 2019 influenza vaccine as compared to HCW who had not received the vaccine. Results: Our total sample size was 261 HCW. Of 80 COVID-19 incident cases, three cases had received the influenza vaccine, while 87 of 181 controls had received the vaccine. The odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) of being vaccinated were 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.14) among COVID-19 cases as compared to controls. Conclusions: Significant findings suggest that the 2019 influenza vaccine may have a protective association against COVID-19 among HCW.
    • SARS-CoV-2 and Acute Cerebrovascular Events: An Overview

      Ghasemi, Mehdi; Umeton, Raffaella Pizzolato; Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Mohit, Babak; Rahimian, Nasrin; Eshaghhosseiny, Niloofarsadaat; Davoudi, Vahid (MDPI AG, 2021-07-29)
      Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, accumulating evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection may be associated with various neurological manifestations, including acute cerebrovascular events (i.e., stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis). These events can occur prior to, during and even after the onset of COVID-19's general symptoms. Although the mechanisms underlying the cerebrovascular complications in patients with COVID-19 are yet to be fully elucidated, the hypercoagulability state, inflammation and altered angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) signaling in association with SARS-CoV-2 may play key roles. ACE-2 plays a critical role in preserving heart and brain homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of the possible mechanisms underlying the acute cerebrovascular events in patients with COVID-19, and we review the current epidemiological studies and case reports of neurovascular complications in association with SARS-CoV-2, as well as the relevant therapeutic approaches that have been considered worldwide. As the number of published COVID-19 cases with cerebrovascular events is growing, prospective studies would help gather more valuable insights into the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular events, effective therapies, and the factors predicting poor functional outcomes related to such events in COVID-19 patients.
    • SARS-CoV-2 and nervous system: From pathogenesis to clinical manifestation

      Keyhanian, Kiandokht; Umeton, Raffaella Pizzolato; Mohit, Babak; Davoudi, Vahid; Hajighasemi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Mehdi (Elsevier Ltd., 2020-11-07)
      Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a growing body of evidence indicates that besides common COVID-19 symptoms, patients may develop various neurological manifestations affecting both the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as skeletal muscles. These manifestations can occur prior, during and even after the onset of COVID-19 general symptoms. In this Review, we discuss the possible neuroimmunological mechanisms underlying the nervous system and skeletal muscle involvement, and viral triggered neuroimmunological conditions associated with SARS-CoV-2, as well as therapeutic approaches that have been considered for these specific complications worldwide