• Antibiotic Use and Bacterial Infection among Inpatients in the First Wave of COVID-19: a Retrospective Cohort Study of 64,691 Patients

      Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Coffey, K C; Adediran, Timileyin; Goodman, Katherine E; Pineles, Lisa; Magder, Larry S; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Pineles, Beth L; Nadimpalli, Gita; Morgan, Daniel J; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2021-09-07)
      Hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) often receive antibiotics for suspected bacterial coinfection. We estimated the incidence of bacterial coinfection and secondary infection in COVID-19 using clinical diagnoses to determine how frequently antibiotics are administered when bacterial infection is absent. We performed a retrospective cohort study of inpatients with COVID-19 present on admission to hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April and June 2020. Bacterial infections were defined using ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes and associated "present on admission" coding. Coinfections were defined by bacterial infection present on admission, while secondary infections were defined by bacterial infection that developed after admission. Coinfection and secondary infection were not mutually exclusive. A total of 18.5% of 64,961 COVID-19 patients (n = 12,040) presented with bacterial infection at admission, 3.8% (n = 2,506) developed secondary infection after admission, and 0.9% (n = 574) had both; 76.3% (n = 49,551) received an antibiotic while hospitalized, including 71% of patients who had no diagnosis of bacterial infection. Secondary bacterial infection occurred in 5.7% of patients receiving steroids in the first 2 days of hospitalization, 9.9% receiving tocilizumab in the first 2 days of hospitalization, and 10.3% of patients receiving both. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, bacterial coinfection (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 1.20) and secondary infection (aRR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.82 to 2.04) were both independently associated with increased mortality. Although 1 in 5 inpatients with COVID-19 presents with bacterial infection, secondary infections in the hospital are uncommon. Most inpatients with COVID-19 receive antibiotic therapy, including 71% of those not diagnosed with bacterial infection.
    • Impact of Sex and Metabolic Comorbidities on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mortality Risk Across Age Groups: 66 646 Inpatients Across 613 U.S. Hospitals.

      Goodman, Katherine E; Magder, Laurence S; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Pineles, Lisa; Levine, Andrea R; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D (Oxford University Press, 2021-12-06)
      BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.
    • In-Hospital Mortality in a Cohort of Hospitalized Pregnant and Nonpregnant Patients With COVID-19

      Pineles, Beth L; Goodman, Katherine E; Pineles, Lisa; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Nadimpalli, Gita; Magder, Laurence S; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Parchem, Jacqueline G; Harris, Anthony D (American College of Physicians, 2021-05-11)
    • Pregnancy and the Risk of In-Hospital Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mortality.

      Pineles, Beth L; Goodman, Katherine E; Pineles, Lisa; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Nadimpalli, Gita; Magder, Laurence S; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Parchem, Jacqueline G; Harris, Anthony D (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2022-04-05)
      Objective: To evaluate whether pregnancy is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality among patients of reproductive age hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) viral pneumonia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study (April 2020-May 2021) of 23,574 female inpatients aged 15-45 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for COVID-19 discharged from 749 U.S. hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database. We used a viral pneumonia diagnosis to select for patients with symptomatic COVID-19. The associations between pregnancy and in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mechanical ventilation were analyzed using propensity score-matched conditional logistic regression. Models were matched for age, marital status, race and ethnicity, Elixhauser comorbidity score, payer, hospital number of beds, season of discharge, hospital region, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary disease, deficiency anemias, depression, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Results: In-hospital mortality occurred in 1.1% of pregnant patients and 3.5% of nonpregnant patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and viral pneumonia (propensity score-matched odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.63). The frequency of ICU admission for pregnant and nonpregnant patients was 22.0% and 17.7%, respectively (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.15-1.55). Mechanical ventilation was used in 8.7% of both pregnant and nonpregnant patients (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.86-1.29). Among patients who were admitted to an ICU, mortality was lower for pregnant compared with nonpregnant patients (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.20-0.57), though mechanical ventilation rates were similar (35.7% vs 38.3%, OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.70-1.16). Among patients with mechanical ventilation, pregnant patients had a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality compared with nonpregnant patients (0.26, 95% CI 0.15-0.46). Conclusion: Despite a higher frequency of ICU admission, in-hospital mortality was lower among pregnant patients compared with nonpregnant patients with COVID-19 viral pneumonia, and these findings persisted after propensity score matching.