Recent Submissions

  • Baseline cardiometabolic profiles and SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK Biobank

    Scalsky, Ryan J; Chen, Yi-Ju; Desai, Karan; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Perry, James A; Hong, Charles C (Public Library of Science, 2021-04-01)
    Background SARS-CoV-2 is a rapidly spreading coronavirus responsible for the Covid-19 pandemic, which is characterized by severe respiratory infection. Many factors have been identified as risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, with much early attention being paid to body mass index (BMI), which is a well-known cardiometabolic risk factor. Objective This study seeks to examine the impact of additional baseline cardiometabolic risk factors including high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes on the odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in UK Biobank (UKB) study participants. Methods We examined the effect of BMI, lipid profiles, diabetes and alcohol intake on the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 among 9,005 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from March 16 through July 14, 2020. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and ancestry. Results Higher BMI, Type II diabetes and HbA1c were associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 odds (p < 0.05) while HDL-C and ApoA-I were associated with decreased odds (p < 0.001). Though the effect of BMI, Type II diabetes and HbA1c were eliminated when HDL-C was controlled, the effect of HDL-C remained significant when BMI was controlled for. LDL-C, ApoB and triglyceride levels were not found to be significantly associated with increased odds. Conclusion Elevated HDL-C and ApoA-I levels were associated with reduced odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, while higher BMI, type II diabetes and HbA1c were associated with increased odds. The effects of BMI, type II diabetes and HbA1c levels were no longer significant after controlling for HDL-C, suggesting that these effects may be mediated in part through regulation of HDL-C levels. In summary, our study suggests that baseline HDL-C level may be useful for stratifying SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and corroborates the emerging picture that HDL-C may confer protection against sepsis in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular. © 2021 Scalsky et al.
  • Elderberry for prevention and treatment of viral respiratory illnesses: a systematic review

    Wieland, L Susan; Piechotta, Vanessa; Feinberg, Termeh; Ludeman, Emilie; Hutton, Brian; Kanji, Salmaan; Seely, Dugald; Garritty, Chantelle (Springer Nature, 2021-04-07)
    Background: Elderberry has traditionally been used to prevent and treat respiratory problems. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been interest in elderberry supplements to treat or prevent illness, but also concern that elderberry might overstimulate the immune system and increase the risk of 'cytokine storm'. We aimed to determine benefits and harms of elderberry for the prevention and treatment of viral respiratory infections, and to assess the relationship between elderberry supplements and negative health impacts associated with overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and searched six databases, four research registers, and two preprint sites for studies. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data from studies, assessed risk of bias using Cochrane tools, and evaluated certainty of estimates using GRADE. Outcomes included new illnesses and the severity and duration of illness. Results: We screened 1187 records and included five randomized trials on elderberry for the treatment or prevention of viral respiratory illness. We did not find any studies linking elderberry to clinical inflammatory outcomes. However, we found three studies measuring production of cytokines ex vivo after ingestion of elderberry. Elderberry may not reduce the risk of developing the common cold; it may reduce the duration and severity of colds, but the evidence is uncertain. Elderberry may reduce the duration of influenza but the evidence is uncertain. Compared to oseltamivir, an elderberry-containing product may be associated with a lower risk of influenza complications and adverse events. We did not find evidence on elderberry and clinical outcomes related to inflammation. However, we found evidence that elderberry has some effect on inflammatory markers, although this effect may decline with ongoing supplementation. One small study compared elderberry to diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and provided some evidence that elderberry is as effective or less effective than diclofenac in cytokine reduction over time. Conclusions: Elderberry may be a safe option for treating viral respiratory illness, and there is no evidence that it overstimulates the immune system. However, the evidence on both benefits and harms is uncertain and information from recent and ongoing studies is necessary to make firm conclusions.
  • Minimizing the impact of the triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and HIV on health services in sub-Saharan Africa

    Nachega, Jean B; Kapata, Nathan; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Decloedt, Eric H; Katoto, Patrick D M C; Nagu, Tumaini; Mwaba, Peter; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Ntoumi, Francine; et al. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-03-20)
    In this perspective, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis (TB)/HIV health services and approaches to mitigating the growing burden of these three colliding epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA countries bear significantly high proportions of TB and HIV cases reported worldwide, compared to countries in the West. Whilst COVID-19 epidemiology appears to vary across Africa, most countries in this region have reported relatively lower-case counts compared to the West. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden to already overstretched health systems in SSA, which, among other things, have been focused on the longstanding dual epidemics of TB and HIV. As with these dual epidemics, inadequate resources and poor case identification and reporting may be contributing to underestimations of the COVID-19 case burden in SSA. Modelling studies predict that the pandemic-related disruptions in TB and HIV services will result in significant increases in associated morbidity and mortality over the next five years. Furthermore, limited empirical evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with TB and HIV are associated with increased mortality risk in SSA. However, predictive models require a better evidence-base to accurately define the impact of COVID-19, not only on communicable diseases such as TB and HIV, but on non-communicable disease comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess morbidity and mortality data among both adults and children across the African continent, paying attention to geographic disparities, as well as the clinical and socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 in the setting of TB and/or HIV.
  • A novel LC-MS/MS method for determination of the potential antiviral candidate favipiravir for the emergency treatment of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human plasma: Application to a bioequivalence study in Egyptian human volunteers

    Morsy, Mosaad I; Nouman, Eman G; Abdallah, Youmna M; Zainelabdeen, Mourd A; Darwish, Mohamed M; Hassan, Ahmed Y; Gouda, Amira S; Rezk, Mamdouh R; Abdel-Megied, Ahmed M; Marzouk, Hoda M (Elsevier B.V., 2021-04-01)
    A novel, fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the bioanalysis of the antiviral agent favipiravir (FAV); a promising candidate for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in human plasma using pyrazinamide as an internal standard (IS). Simple protein precipitation was adopted for plasma sample preparation using methanol. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Eclipse plus C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.2 % acetic acid (20:80, v/v) pumped at a flow rate 0.6 mL/min in an isocratic elution mode. The API4500 triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was operated with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative electrospray ionization interface for FAV and positive for IS. The MRM function was used for quantification, with the transitions set at m/z 156.00→ 113.00 and m/z 124.80→ 81.00 for FAV and IS. The method was optimized and fully validated in accordance to US-FDA guidelines. Linearity was acquired over a concentration range of 100.0-20000.0 ng/mL by computing using weighted linear regression strategy (1/x2). The proposed method was effectively applied for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of FAV and to demonstrate the bioequivalence of a new FAV formulation (test) and reference product in healthy Egyptian human volunteers.
  • Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries

    Sbarra, A.N.; Amit; A.M.L.,Memiah; P.T.N.; Local Burden of Disease Vaccine Coverage Collaborators (2021)
    The safe, highly effective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1�4. Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical for understanding geographically precise immunity patterns, progress towards the targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), and high-risk areas amid disruptions to vaccination programmes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)5�8. Here we generated annual estimates of routine childhood MCV1 coverage at 5 � 5-km2 pixel and second administrative levels from 2000 to 2019 in 101 LMICs, quantified geographical inequality and assessed vaccination status by geographical remoteness. After widespread MCV1 gains from 2000 to 2010, coverage regressed in more than half of the districts between 2010 and 2019, leaving many LMICs far from the GVAP goal of 80% coverage in all districts by 2019. MCV1 coverage was lower in rural than in urban locations, although a larger proportion of unvaccinated children overall lived in urban locations; strategies to provide essential vaccination services should address both geographical contexts. These results provide a tool for decision-makers to strengthen routine MCV1 immunization programmes and provide equitable disease protection for all children.
  • Personal protective equipment in the siege of respiratory viral pandemics: strides made and next steps

    Eke, U.A.; Eke, A.C. (Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2021)
    Introduction: In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 originated from China, and spread rapidly to several countries, bringing a frightening scarcity of personal protective equipment (PPE). The CDC recommends N95 or higher-level particulate filtering respirators as part of the PPE while caring for patients with COVID-19, with facemasks as an alternative; and cloth face-coverings in public where social distancing of at least 6 ft. is not feasible. With new evidence about the efficacy of facemasks, knowledge gaps remain. Areas covered: This reviews the history of respiratory viral pandemics and PPE use, exploring the influenza pandemics of the 20th and 21st century, and prior coronavirus pandemics. A literature search of PubMed and google was done between March 22nd to May 2nd, and on September 28, 2020. The evidence for PPE is described, to delineate their efficacy and 'best safe' practices. Solutions to ameliorate pandemic preparedness to meet surge-capacity to efficiently combat future pandemics, should they arise, are discussed. Expert opinion: PPE, when used appropriately in addition to other infection control measures, is effective protection during respiratory viral pandemics. The current evidence suggests that wearing facemasks in the community is protective, especially if used consistently and correctly with other infection control measures such as hand hygiene. Copyright 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Clinical strategies for optimizing infusion center care through a pandemic

    Hanna, K.S.; Segal, E.M.; Barlow, A.; Barlow, B. (SAGE Publications Ltd, 2021)
    The national pandemic resulting from the novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has made the delivery of care for patients with cancer a challenge. There are competing risks of mortality from cancer versus serious complications and higher risk of death from COVID-19 in immunocompromised hosts. Furthermore, compounding these concerns is the inadequate supply of personal protective equipment, decreased hospital capacity, and paucity of effective treatments or vaccines to date for COVID-19. Guidance measures and recommendations have been published by national organizations aiming to facilitate the delivery of care in a safe and effective manner, many of which, are permanently adoptable interventions. Given the critical importance to continue chemotherapy, there remains additional interventions to further enhance patient safety while conserving healthcare resources such as adjustments in medication administration, reduction in laboratory or drug monitoring, and home delivery of specialty infusions. In this manuscript, we outline how to implement these actionable interventions of chemotherapy and supportive care delivery to further enhance the current precautionary measures while maintaining safe and effective patient care. Coupled with current published standards, these strategies can help alleviate the numerous challenges associated with this pandemic. Copyright The Author(s) 2020.
  • Stepping Up to the Challenge: Overcoming Barriers to Radiology Training in the United States During COVID-19

    Awan, O.A.; Klein, J.S. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2021)
    [No abstract available]
  • Why Temperature Screening for Coronavirus Disease 2019 with Noncontact Infrared Thermometers Does Not Work

    Wright, W.F.; MacKowiak, P.A. (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    Coronavirus disease 2019 screening can evaluate large numbers of patients while reducing healthcare exposures and limiting further spread of the virus. Temperature screening has been a focal point of case detection during the pandemic because it is one of the earliest and most frequently reported manifestations of the illness. We describe important factors to consider of screened individuals as well as the measurement process and current outcomes. Optimal temperature-based screening involves both individual and environmental factors as well as reconsideration of the current fever threshold. Copyright 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.
  • Quality Improvement Amid a Global Pandemic: A Virtual Curriculum for Medical Students in the Time of COVID-19

    Donohue, K.E.; Farber, D.L.; Goel, N.; Parrino, C.R.; Retener, N.F.; Rizvi, S.; Dittmar, P.C. (Association of American Medical Colleges, 2021)
    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic in March of 2020 necessitated the removal of medical students from direct patient care activities to prevent disease spread and to conserve personal protective equipment. In order for medical student education to continue, virtual and online electives were designed and implemented expeditiously. We created a virtual curriculum that taught quality improvement (QI) skills within the context of the global pandemic. Methods: This 4-week curriculum enrolled 16 students. Students completed the revised QI knowledge application tool (QIKAT-R) before and after the course to assess QI knowledge. Students completed prereading, online modules, and received lectures on QI and incident command systems. Each group designed their own QI project related to our hospital system's response to the pandemic. Finally, groups presented their projects at a peer symposium and completed peer evaluations. Results: Students' QIKAT-R scores improved throughout the course from a mean of 5.5 (SD = 1.3) to a mean of 7.5 (SD = 1.1; p < 0.001). Students reported that the virtual learning experience delivered the material effectively, and all students agreed that they would participate in QI work in the future. Discussion: Patient safety and QI topics are content areas for multiple medical licensing examinations. Virtual learning is an effective way to deliver QI content to medical students and residents, especially when projects are trainee-led, QI-trained faculty serve as mentors, and the projects harmonize with institutional goals. Our virtual pandemic-focused curriculum has demonstrated efficacy in increasing medical student QI knowledge. Copyright 2021 Donohue et al.
  • Diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 infections

    Kevadiya, B.D.; Machhi, J.; Herskovitz, J.; Oleynikov, M.D.; Blomberg, W.R.; Bajwa, N.; Soni, D.; Das, S.; Hasan, M.; Patel, M.; et al. (Nature Research, 2021)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to nearly every corner of the globe, causing societal instability. The resultant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to fever, sore throat, cough, chest and muscle pain, dyspnoea, confusion, anosmia, ageusia and headache. These can progress to life-threatening respiratory insufficiency, also affecting the heart, kidney, liver and nervous systems. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is often confused with that of influenza and seasonal upper respiratory tract viral infections. Due to available treatment strategies and required containments, rapid diagnosis is mandated. This Review brings clarity to the rapidly growing body of available and in-development diagnostic tests, including nanomaterial-based tools. It serves as a resource guide for scientists, physicians, students and the public at large. Copyright 2021, Springer Nature Limited.
  • Risk factors associated with adverse fetal outcomes in pregnancies affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A secondary analysis of the WAPM study on COVID-19

    Di, Mascio, D.; Cojocaru, L.; Turan, S. (De Gruyter Open Ltd, 2021)
    To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome. Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.
  • Rapid spread and control of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria in covid-19 patient care units

    Patel, A.; Emerick, M.; Cabunoc, M.K.; Williams, M.H.; Preas, M.A.; Schrank, G.; Rabinowitz, R.; Luethy, P.; Johnson, J.K.; Leekha, S. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2021)
    We describe rapid spread of multidrug-resistant gramnegative bacteria among patients in dedicated coronavirus disease care units in a hospital in Maryland, USA, during May-June 2020. Critical illness, high antibiotic use, double occupancy of single rooms, and modified infection prevention practices were key contributing factors. Surveillance culturing aided in outbreak recognition and control. Copyright 2021 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.
  • Extended use or reuse of single-use surgical masks and filtering face-piece respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: A rapid systematic review

    Toomey, E.C.; Conway, Y.; Burton, C.; Smith, S.; Smalle, M.; Chan, X.-H.S.; Adisesh, A.; Tanveer, S.; Ross, L.; Thomson, I.; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
    Background: Shortages of personal protective equipment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have led to the extended use or reuse of single-use respirators and surgical masks by frontline healthcare workers. The evidence base underpinning such practices warrants examination. Objectives: To synthesize current guidance and systematic review evidence on extended use, reuse, or reprocessing of single-use surgical masks or filtering face-piece respirators. Data sources: We used the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Public Health England websites to identify guidance. We used Medline, PubMed, Epistemonikos, Cochrane Database, and preprint servers for systematic reviews. Methods: Two reviewers conducted screening and data extraction. The quality of included systematic reviews was appraised using AMSTAR-2. Findings were narratively synthesized. Results: In total, 6 guidance documents were identified. Levels of detail and consistency across documents varied. They included 4 high-quality systematic reviews: 3 focused on reprocessing (decontamination) of N95 respirators and 1 focused on reprocessing of surgical masks. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation were highlighted as the most promising reprocessing methods, but evidence on the relative efficacy and safety of different methods was limited. We found no well-established methods for reprocessing respirators at scale. Conclusions: Evidence on the impact of extended use and reuse of surgical masks and respirators is limited, and gaps and inconsistencies exist in current guidance. Where extended use or reuse is being practiced, healthcare organizations should ensure that policies and systems are in place to ensure these practices are carried out safely and in line with available guidance. Copyright 2020 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.
  • End-Of-Life Care in the Time of COVID-19: Communication Matters More Than Ever

    Ersek, M.; Smith, D.; Griffin, H.; Carpenter, J.G.; Feder, S.L.; Shreve, S.T.; Nelson, F.X.; Kinder, D.; Thorpe, J.M.; Kutney-Lee, A. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-01-05)
    Context: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in visitation restrictions across most health care settings, necessitating the use of remote communication to facilitate communication among families, patients and health care teams. Objective: To examine the impact of remote communication on families' evaluation of end-of-life care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods study using data from an after-death survey administered from March 17-June 30, 2020. The primary outcome was the next of kin's global assessment of care during the Veteran's last month of life. Results: Data were obtained from the next-of-kin of 328 Veterans who died in an inpatient unit (i.e., acute care, intensive care, nursing home, hospice units) in one of 37 VA medical centers with the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases. The adjusted percentage of bereaved families reporting excellent overall end-of-life care was statistically significantly higher among those reporting Very Effective remote communication compared to those reporting that remote communication was Mostly, Somewhat, or Not at All Effective (69.5% vs. 35.7%). Similar differences were observed in evaluations of remote communication effectiveness with the health care team. Overall, 81.3% of family members who offered positive comments about communication with either the Veteran or the health care team reported excellent overall end-of-life care vs. 28.4% who made negative comments. Conclusions: Effective remote communication with the patient and the health care team was associated with significantly better ratings of the overall experience of end-of-life care by bereaved family members. Our findings offer timely insights into the importance of remote communication strategies. Copyright 2021 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
  • Getting Real: The Maryland Healthcare Ethics Committee Network's COVID-19 Working Group Debriefs Lessons Learned

    Elson, N.; Gwon, H.; Hoffmann, D.E.; Kelmenson, A.M.; Khan, A.; Kraus, J.F.; Onyegwara, C.C.; Povar, G.; Sheikh, F.; Tarzian, A.J. (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2021-02-13)
    Responding to a major pandemic and planning for allocation of scarce resources (ASR) under crisis standards of care requires coordination and cooperation across federal, state and local governments in tandem with the larger societal infrastructure. Maryland remains one of the few states with no state-endorsed ASR plan, despite having a plan published in 2017 that was informed by public forums across the state. In this article, we review strengths and weaknesses of Maryland's response to COVID-19 and the role of the Maryland Healthcare Ethics Committee Network (MHECN) in bridging gaps in the state's response to prepare health care facilities for potential implementation of ASR plans. Identified "lessons learned" include: Deliberative Democracy Provided a Strong Foundation for Maryland's ASR Framework; Community Consensus is Informative, Not Normative; Hearing Community Voices Has Inherent Value; Lack of Transparency & Political Leadership Gaps Generate a Fragmented Response; Pandemic Politics Requires Diplomacy & Persistence; Strong Leadership is Needed to Avoid Implementing ASR ... And to Plan for ASR; An Effective Pandemic Response Requires Coordination and Information-Sharing Beyond the Acute Care Hospital; and The Ability to Correct Course is Crucial: Reconsidering No-visitor Policies. Copyright 2021, This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.
  • The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Patients in the United States: A Multicenter Update to the Previous Survey

    Brown, T.S.; Bedard, N.A.; Rojas, E.O.; Anthony, C.A.; Schwarzkopf, R.; Stambough, J.B.; Nandi, S.; Prieto, H.; Parvizi, J.; Bini, S.A.; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2020-12-03)
    Background: In March 2020, elective total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) were suspended across the United States in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We had previously published the results of a survey to the affected patients from 6 institutions. We now present the results of a larger distribution of this survey, through May and June 2020, to electively scheduled patients representing different regions of the United States. Methods: Fifteen centers identified through the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Research Committee participated in a survey study of THA and TKA patients. Patients scheduled for primary elective THA or TKA but canceled due to the COVID-19 elective surgery stoppage (3/2020-5/2020) were included in the study. Descriptive statistics along with subgroup analysis with Wilcoxon rank were performed. Results: In total, surveys were distributed to 2135 patients and completed by 848 patients (40%) from 15 institutions. Most patients (728/848, 86%) had their surgery postponed or canceled by the surgeon or hospital. Unknown length of surgical delay remained the highest source of anxiety among survey participants. Male patients were more likely to be willing to proceed with surgery in spite of COVID-19. There were minimal regional differences in responses. Only 61 patients (7%) stated they will continue to delay surgery for fear of contracting COVID-19 while in the hospital. Conclusion: Similar to the previous study, the most anxiety-provoking thought was the uncertainty, over if and when the canceled joint replacement surgery could be rescheduled. Patients suffering from the daily pain of hip and knee arthritis who have been scheduled for elective arthroplasty remain eager to have their operation as soon as elective surgery is allowed to resume. Copyright 2021
  • Covid-19 and essential workers: A narrative review of health outcomes and moral injury

    Gaitens, J.; Condon, M.; Fernandes, E.; McDiarmid, M. (MDPI AG, 2021-02-04)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a number of added obstacles to safe employment for already-challenged essential workers. Essential workers not employed in the health sector generally include racially diverse, low-wage workers whose jobs require close interaction with the public and/or close proximity to their coworkers, placing them at increased risk of infection. A narrative review facilitated the analyses of health outcome data in these workers and contributing factors to illness related to limited workplace protections and a lack of organizational support. Findings suggest that this already marginalized population may also be at increased risk of "moral injury" due to specific work-related factors, such as limited personal protective equipment (PPE) and the failure of the employer, as the safety and health "duty holder," to protect workers. Evidence suggests that ethical and, in some cases, legally required safety protections benefit not only the individual worker, but an employer's enterprise and the larger community which can retain access to resilient, essential services. Copyright 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Plitidepsin has potent preclinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 by targeting the host protein eEF1A

    White, K.M.; Rosales, R.; Yildiz, S.; Kehrer, T.; Miorin, L.; Moreno, E.; Jangra, S.; Uccellini, M.B.; Rathnasinghe, R.; Coughlan, L.; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2021-02-26)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins interact with the eukaryotic translation machinery, and inhibitors of translation have potent antiviral effects. We found that the drug plitidepsin (aplidin), which has limited clinical approval, possesses antiviral activity (90% inhibitory concentration = 0.88 nM) that is more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by a factor of 27.5, with limited toxicity in cell culture. Through the use of a drug-resistant mutant, we show that the antiviral activity of plitidepsin against SARS-CoV-2 is mediated through inhibition of the known target eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A). We demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of plitidepsin treatment in two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a reduction of viral replication in the lungs by two orders of magnitude using prophylactic treatment. Our results indicate that plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19. Copyright 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.
  • COVID-19 Recommendations for Research From the Gerontological Society of America COVID-19 Task Force

    Resnick, B.; Zimmerman, S.; The Gerontological Society of America COVID-19 Task Force (Oxford University Press, 2021-02-23)

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