Recent Submissions

  • Older Adults’ Intention to Socially Isolate Once COVID-19 Stay-at-Home Orders Are Replaced With “Safer-at-Home” Public Health Advisories: A Survey of Respondents in Maryland

    Callow, Michael A.; Callow, Daniel D.; Smith, Charles (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-22)
    Background: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Health Belief Model (HBM) were used to examine the opinion and behaviors of older adults regarding Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), social distancing practices, stay-at-home orders, and hypothetical public policy messaging strategies. Method: A convenience sample (N = 242) of adults 60 and older in the state of Maryland took part in an online survey. Respondents filled out questions regarding demographic information, political affiliation, current social distancing behaviors, and TPB and HBM constructs in our proposed model. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted to test the model. Results: Attitude toward social isolation was affected by perceived benefits and barriers to social distancing measures, perceived severity of COVID-19, and political affiliation. Behavior intention was influenced by attitude, subjective norms, political affiliation, and messaging strategies. Conclusion: The study provides support for the conceptual model and has public policy implications as authorities begin to lift stay-at-home orders. © The Author(s) 2020.
  • The Natural History, Pathobiology, and Clinical Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 Infections

    Machhi, Jatin; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Senan, Ahmed M.; Dutta, Debashis; Nath, Barnali; Oleynikov, Maxim D.; Blomberg, Wilson R.; Meigs, Douglas D.; Hasan, Mahmudul; Patel, Milankumar; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-21)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with epithelial cell and respiratory system proclivity. Like its predecessor, SARS-CoV, COVID-19 can lead to life-threatening disease. Due to wide geographic impact affecting an extremely high proportion of the world population it was defined by the World Health Organization as a global public health pandemic. The infection is known to readily spread from person-to-person. This occurs through liquid droplets by cough, sneeze, hand-to-mouth-to-eye contact and through contaminated hard surfaces. Close human proximity accelerates SARS-CoV-2 spread. COVID-19 is a systemic disease that can move beyond the lungs by blood-based dissemination to affect multiple organs. These organs include the kidney, liver, muscles, nervous system, and spleen. The primary cause of SARS-CoV-2 mortality is acute respiratory distress syndrome initiated by epithelial infection and alveolar macrophage activation in the lungs. The early cell-based portal for viral entry is through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Viral origins are zoonotic with genomic linkages to the bat coronaviruses but without an identifiable intermediate animal reservoir. There are currently few therapeutic options, and while many are being tested, although none are effective in curtailing the death rates. There is no available vaccine yet. Intense global efforts have targeted research into a better understanding of the epidemiology, molecular biology, pharmacology, and pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2. These fields of study will provide the insights directed to curtailing this disease outbreak with intense international impact.
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for COVID-19

    Sanford, Zachary; Madathil, Ronson J.; Deatrick, Kristopher B.; Tabatabai, Ali; Menaker, Jay; Galvagno, Samuel M.; Mazzeffi, Michael A.; Rabin, Joseph; Ghoreishi, Mehrdad; Rector, Raymond; et al. (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-21)
  • Innovations—The COVID-19 Pandemic

    Ad, Niv (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-20)
  • Current State of Research About Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Scoping Review

    López-Alcalde, Jesús; Yan, Yuqian; Witt, Claudia M.; Barth, Jürgen (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2020-07-01)
    Background: There is currently no effective treatment against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The optimal selection of interventions targeting the virus is unknown. Therefore, evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support specific treatment against COVID-19 is urgently needed. The use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) might have a role in the treatment and symptomatic management of patients with COVID-19. It was aimed at providing an overview of the available evidence and ongoing trials concerning the effects of CHMs for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: This is a narrative review of relevant studies. Searches were conducted to identify documents published till April 22, 2020. Electronic databases, evidence-based collections, websites of relevant organizations, and trial registries were consulted. Results: A total of 25 guidelines on the treatment of patients with COVID-19 were identified. Four guidelines provided recommendations on the use of CHMs; these guidelines were developed in China and South Korea and were based on the consensus of experts exclusively. The remaining 21 guidelines provided no guidance on CHMs. No finished RCTs of CHMs for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 was found. According to the evidence evaluated in this review, a Cochrane review of CHMs for severe acute respiratory syndrome and five uncontrolled observational studies of the effects of CHMs in patients with COVID-19, the effects of CHMs for COVID-19 are unknown. A total of 52 ongoing clinical trials of CHM interventions for the treatment of COVID-19 were found. These trials will be carried out mostly in China (n = 51). Forty (77%) of the ongoing trials will be randomized, whereas 12 (23%) have an unclear sequence generation procedure. Forty-seven trials (90%) will have a sample size <400 participants. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, only the Chinese and the South Korean guidelines recommend CHMs as a treatment option for patients with COVID-19. These guidelines base their recommendations on the consensus of experts. Clinical guidelines or health authorities from other countries do not provide advice on CHMs. Due to the absence of RCT, there is currently no reliable evidence on the effects of any specific CHM intervention for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. A high number of clinical trials of different herbal products are being currently conducted in China.
  • COVID Activated Emergency Scaling of Anesthesiology Responsibilities (CAESAR) ICU

    Verdiner, Ricardo E.; Choukalas, Christopher G.; Siddiqui, Shahla; Stahl, David L.; Galvagno, Samuel M., Jr; Jabaley, Craig S.; Bartz, Raquel R.; Lane-Fall, Meghan; Goff, Kristina L.; Sreedharan, Roshni; et al. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020-05-07)
    In response to the rapidly evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the potential need for physicians to provide critical care services, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) has collaborated with the Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists (SOCCA), the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), and the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF) to develop the COVID-Activated Emergency Scaling of Anesthesiology Responsibilities (CAESAR) Intensive Care Unit (ICU) workgroup. CAESAR-ICU is designed and written for the practicing general anesthesiologist and should serve as a primer to enable an anesthesiologist to provide limited bedside critical care services.
  • Current Landscape of Imaging and the Potential Role for Artificial Intelligence in the Management of COVID-19

    Shaikh, Faiq; Andersen, Michael Brun; Sohail, M. Rizwan; Mulero, Francisca; Awan, Omer; Dupont-Roettger, Diana; Kubassova, Olga; Dehmeshki, Jamshid; Bisdas, Sotirios (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
    The clinical management of COVID-19 is challenging. Medical imaging plays a critical role in the early detection, clinical monitoring and outcomes assessment of this disease. Chest x-ray radiography and computed tomography) are the standard imaging modalities used for the structural assessment of the disease status, while functional imaging (namely, positron emission tomography) has had limited application. Artificial intelligence can enhance the predictive power and utilization of these imaging approaches and new approaches focusing on detection, stratification and prognostication are showing encouraging results. We review the current landscape of these imaging modalities and artificial intelligence approaches as applied in COVID-19 management.
  • Initiation of a survey of healthcare worker distress and moral injury at the onset of the COVID‐19 surge

    Hines, Stella E.; Chin, Katherine H.; Levine, Andrea R.; Wickwire, Emerson M. (Wiley, 2020-07-16)
  • A Practical Decontamination Framework for COVID-19 Front-line Workers Returning Home

    Harris, Chelsea A.; Evans, Heather L.; Telem, Dana A. (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2020-05-07)
    The question, ‘‘how can I keep the people in my household safe?’’ points to a fundamental fear among health care workers and other essential employees. For those on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety regarding virus transmission does not stop at shifts’ end. Instead, providers are grappling with how to ensure they do not bring infectious materials home. Few, if any, guidelines exist to advise personnel on how to best limit viral spread to their families, and most focus on how to limit transmission after individuals become infected. In this context, we have endeavored to synthesize scientific evidence, agency guidelines, and best practices from workers in the field, to create a framework for staff returning from work.
  • Uncovering the Devaluation of Nursing Home Staff During COVID-19: Are We Fuelling the Next Health Care Crisis?

    McGilton, Katherine S.; Escrig-Pinol, Astrid; Gordon, Adam; Chu, Charlene H.; Zúñiga, Franziska; Sanchez, Montserrat Gea; Boscart, Veronique; Meyer, Julienne; Corazzini, Kirsten N.; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
  • Self-reported impact of respirator use on health care worker ability to perform patient care

    Hines, Stella E.; Oliver, Marc S.; Gucer, Patricia; McDiarmid, Melissa A. (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
    In a study of 1,152 health care workers surveyed prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, most disagreed that respiratory protective equipment use interferes with patient care but reported that it would affect respirator use compliance if it did. A patient's fear reaction variably influenced self-reported health care worker compliance with respirator use. Strategies to improve protective equipment design may remove potential barriers to respirator use and allow better health care worker-patient relationships.
  • Therapeutic Plasma Exchange: A potential Management Strategy for Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients

    Tabibi, Seena; Tabibi, Tara; Conic, Rosalynn R. Z.; Banisaeed, Nassim; Streiff, Michael B. (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-15)
    In the 5 months since initial reports of COVID-19 came to light, the death toll due to SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly increased. The morbidity and mortality of the infection varies based upon patient age, comorbid conditions, viral load, and the availability of effective treatments. Findings from limited autopsies, clinical observations, and laboratory data suggest that high cytokine levels and a procoagulant state can precipitate acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome in critically ill patients. To complicate matters, comorbidities may affect the response to medical treatments currently in use, all of which are still in trial phase. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) merits consideration in the treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients and is an avenue for clinical trials to pursue. If efficacious, faster recovery of patients may lead to shorter intensive care unit stays and less time on mechanical ventilation. Herein, we briefly discuss some of the various approaches currently being investigated for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on potential benefits of TPE for selected critically ill patients. © The Author(s) 2020.
  • Guidelines for Frontline Health Care Staff Safety for COVID-19

    Baker, Terrance L.; Greiner, Jack V.; Maxwell-Schmidt, Elizabeth; Lamothe, P. Henri; Vesonder, Modesta (SAGE Publications, 2020-07-13)
    This document establishes safety guidelines for physicians, nurses, and allied health care and facility staff who may be exposed to patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a health care facility. SARS-CoV-2 infection is highly contagious and places health care workers at risk for infection resulting in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Physicians, nurses, and allied health care and facility staff in all frontline environments must be provided and utilize necessary personal protective equipment (PPE). It is important that health care staff adopt a universal set of guidelines in which to conduct themselves in order to minimize infection with the SARS-CoV-2 contagion. The establishment of these guidelines is necessary in this viral pandemic since such directives can create a standard of safety that is universally accepted. These guidelines establish a framework to provide consistency among health care facilities and staff from the time the staff member arrives at the health care facility until they return home. These guidelines provide a practical description of the minimum necessary protection for physicians, nurses, and allied health care and facility staff against SARS-CoV-2 infection. © The Author(s) 2020.
  • SARS-CoV-2: March toward adaptation

    Benedetti, F.; Pachetti, M.; Marini, B.; Ippodrino, R.; Ciccozzi, M.; Zella, D. (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2020)
  • The interplay between COVID 19 and non-communicable diseases

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gorelick, P. (W.B. Saunders, 2020)
  • Actively working to be more antiracist in the employee assistance field

    Jacobson Frey, J. (Routledge, 2020)
    In addition to the ongoing response to the Novel Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), workplaces are addressing and beginning in many cases to dismantle long-standing systems and structures that uphold racism. These changes are happening quickly and around the globe. Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) have an opportunity to support and guide workplaces leaders as they seek out guidance and new solutions to the two pandemics of COVID-19 and racism. To start this work; however, EAPs need to work internally to examine, challenge and change their own practices and behaviors in an effort to be a more diverse, inclusive, and anti-racist work and professional environment. This article describes 10 steps EAPs can take to start or continue on their journey to be more anti-racist within their own workplaces and with the workplaces they support.

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