Recent Submissions

  • The critical care literature 2020

    Winters, Michael E.; Hu, Kami; Martinez, Joseph P.; Mallemat, Haney; Brady, William J. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-09-29)
    Given the dramatic increase in critically ill patients who present to the emergency department for care, along with the persistence of boarding of critically ill patients, it is imperative for the emergency physician to be knowledgeable about recent developments in resuscitation and critical care medicine. This review summarizes important articles published in 2020 that pertain to the resuscitation and care of select critically ill patients. These articles have been selected based on the authors annual review of key critical care, emergency medicine and medicine journals and their opinion of the importance of study findings as it pertains to the care of critically ill ED patients. Several key findings from the studies discussed in this paper include the administration of dexamethasone to patients with COVID-19 infection who require mechanical ventilation or supplemental oxygen, the use of lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure for patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome, and early initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation if resources are available. Furthermore, the emergency physician should not administer tranexamic acid to patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding or administer the combination of vitamin C, thiamine, and hydrocortisone for patients with septic shock. Finally, the emergency physician should titrate vasopressor medications to more closely match a patient's chronic perfusion pressure rather than target a mean arterial blood pressure of 65 mmHg for all critically ill patients.
  • A Novel Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Favipiravir, a Potential Antiviral Drug for COVID-19 Treatment; Application to Degradation Kinetic Studies and In-Vitro Dissolution Profiling

    Marzouk, Hoda M; Rezk, Mamdouh R; Gouda, Amira S; Abdel-Megied, Ahmed M (Elsevier B.V., 2021-10-15)
    Modern pharmaceutical analysis is paying a lot of attention to the stability of novel drug formulations as well as establishment of suitable stability-indicating approaches. In the current work, a comprehensive stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method has been developed and validated for determination of favipiravir (FAV) which is a novel and emerging antiviral option in COVID-19 treatment. The stability of FAV was examined under different stress conditions. FAV was found to be susceptible to acid, base hydrolysis and oxidative degradation. Structure elucidation of the forced degradation products was carried out using mass spectrometry (MS) operated in electrospray ionization mode. Effective separation of FAV and its induced degradation products was achieved using isocratic elution mode on Zorbax C18 column maintained at 30°C. The mobile phase used was comprised of 25.0 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5 ± 0.05) containing 0.1% (w/v) heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt-methanol-acetonitrile (62:28:10, by volume), delivered at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The diode array detector signal for FAV was monitored at 321.0 nm over a concentration range of 6.25-250.00 µg/mL. The potential mechanisms for generation of degradation products were postulated through comparison of MS1 fragmentation pattern of FAV and its degradation products. Moreover, the proposed method was also extended to study the degradation kinetics. Additionally, dissolution profiling of FAV in different media was monitored. Clearly, the suggested approach is accurate, reliable, time-saving, and cost-effective. As a result, it may be utilized for regular quality control and stability assessment of FAV in its tablet dosage form.
  • Flatten the curve: Empirical evidence on how non-pharmaceutical interventions substituted pharmaceutical treatments during COVID-19 pandemic

    Luo, Weiyu; Guo, Wei; Hu, Songhua; Yang, Mofeng; Hu, Xinyuan; Xiong, Chenfeng (Public Library of Science, 2021-10-11)
    During the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Non-Pharmaceutical and Pharmaceutical treatments were alternative strategies for governments to intervene. Though many of these intervention methods proved to be effective to stop the spread of COVID-19, i.e., lockdown and curfew, they also posed risk to the economy; in such a scenario, an analysis on how to strike a balance becomes urgent. Our research leverages the mobility big data from the University of Maryland COVID-19 Impact Analysis Platform and employs the Generalized Additive Model (GAM), to understand how the social demographic variables, NPTs (Non-Pharmaceutical Treatments) and PTs (Pharmaceutical Treatments) affect the New Death Rate (NDR) at county-level. We also portray the mutual and interactive effects of NPTs and PTs on NDR. Our results show that there exists a specific usage rate of PTs where its marginal effect starts to suppress the NDR growth, and this specific rate can be reduced through implementing the NPTs. Copyright: © 2021 Luo et al.
  • Endodontics specialists' practice during the initial outbreak of COVID-19

    Nosrat, Ali; dianat, omid; Verma, Prashant; Yu, Peter; Wu, Di; Fouad, Ashraf F (Elsevier Inc., 2021-10-06)
    Introduction: The first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States resulted in nationwide closure of dental offices that created an oral health crisis. The aim of this observational study was to analyze and compare the characteristics of patients who visited two private Endodontics offices from March-16 to May-31, 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. Methods: Demographic, diagnostic, and procedural data of 1520 (693 in 2020; 827 in 2019) patient visits were collected. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on patient-related variables. Results: Bivariate analyses showed that the number of patient visits decreased in April and May 2020 (P<.0001). In 2020, patients' self-reported pain level was higher, they were more frequently diagnosed with pulp necrosis, and acute apical abscess, and they received more incisions for drainage (P<.05). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that COVID-19 outbreak was associated with less visits for patients older in age (> 49.5 years) (odds ratio [OR], 0.720; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.573-0.906), more patients with kidney diseases (OR, 2.690; 95% CI, 1.143-6.331), higher levels of pain on percussion (OR, 2.277; 95% CI, 1.718-3.016), less cases with previously initiated treatment (OR, 0.242; 95% CI, 0.080-0.731), less periapical diagnosis of asymptomatic apical periodontitis (OR, 0.510; 95% CI, 0.306-0.849), higher number of non-surgical root canal treatments (OR, 2.073; 95% CI, 1.397-3.074) and apicoectomies (OR, 2.799; 95% CI, 1.367-5.729). Conclusion: These findings show that the public health burden of endodontic infections was more intense during the initial outbreak of COVID-19.
  • Physiological Impacts of Surgical Mask Coverage of Elastomeric Half-mask Respirator Exhalation Valves in Healthcare Workers

    Zhuang, Eileen; THURMAN, PAUL; Chen, Hegang H; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Hines, Stella E (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-29)
    Objectives: Elastomeric half-mask respirator (EHMR) use in healthcare increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Concern for potential release of infectious aerosols from EHMR exhalation valves prompted recommendations to cover them with surgical masks (SMs), thereby improving source control. The physiological and subjective effects of wearing a SM over the exhalation valve of an EHMR, however, are unknown. Methods: Twelve healthy healthcare worker volunteers completed a 30-min series of simulated healthcare-related tasks, including resting, talking, walking, and bending, proning and supinating a weighted manikin, and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This series recurred three times with different mask configurations-SM only, EHMR only, or EHMR with SM covering the exhalation valve. A transcutaneous sensor continuously measured carbon dioxide (tcPCO2), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and heart rate (HR) from each subject. Subjects scored their rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and levels of discomfort after each round. Physiological parameters and subjective scores were analyzed using mixed linear models with a fixed effect for mask type, activity, age, body mass index (BMI), and gender. Analysis also tested for interaction between mask type and activity. Results: Physiological parameters remained within normal ranges for all mask configurations but varied by task. Statistically significant but small decreases in mean tcPCO2 (37.17 versus 37.88 mmHg, P < 0.001) and SpO2 (97.74 versus 97.94%, P < 0.001) were associated with wearing EHMR with SM over the exhalation valve compared with EHMR alone. Mean HR did not differ between these mask configurations. Wearing SM only was associated with lower RPE and level of discomfort compared with EHMR, but these subjective scores did not differ when comparing EHMR with SM to EHMR only. Age, BMI, and gender had no significant effect on any outcomes. Conclusions: Wearing a SM over an EHMR did not produce clinically significant changes in tcPCO2, SpO2, or HR compared with uncovered EHMR during healthcare-related tasks. Covered EHMR use also did not affect perceived exertion or discomfort compared with uncovered EHMR use. Covering the exhalation valve of an EHMR with a SM for source control purposes can be done safely.
  • Phase 3 Safety and Efficacy of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) Covid-19 Vaccine

    Falsey, Ann R; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hirsch, Ian; Sproule, Stephanie; Robb, Merlin L; Corey, Lawrence; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Hahn, William; Hunt, Julie; Mulligan, Mark J; et al. (Massachusetts Medical Society, 2021-09-29)
    Background: The safety and efficacy of the AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine in a large, diverse population at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the United States, Chile, and Peru has not been known. Methods: In this ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial, we investigated the safety, vaccine efficacy, and immunogenicity of two doses of AZD1222 as compared with placebo in preventing the onset of symptomatic and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) 15 days or more after the second dose in adults, including older adults, in the United States, Chile, and Peru. Results: A total of 32,451 participants underwent randomization, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive AZD1222 (21,635 participants) or placebo (10,816 participants). AZD1222 was safe, with low incidences of serious and medically attended adverse events and adverse events of special interest; the incidences were similar to those observed in the placebo group. Solicited local and systemic reactions were generally mild or moderate in both groups. Overall estimated vaccine efficacy was 74.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.3 to 80.5; P<0.001) and estimated vaccine efficacy was 83.5% (95% CI, 54.2 to 94.1) in participants 65 years of age or older. High vaccine efficacy was consistent across a range of demographic subgroups. In the fully vaccinated analysis subgroup, no severe or critical symptomatic Covid-19 cases were observed among the 17,662 participants in the AZD1222 group; 8 cases were noted among the 8550 participants in the placebo group (<0.1%). The estimated vaccine efficacy for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (nucleocapsid antibody seroconversion) was 64.3% (95% CI, 56.1 to 71.0; P<0.001). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding and neutralizing antibodies increased after the first dose and increased further when measured 28 days after the second dose. Conclusions: AZD1222 was safe and efficacious in preventing symptomatic and severe Covid-19 across diverse populations that included older adults. (Funded by AstraZeneca and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04516746.).
  • Addressing COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy in Patients with IBD

    Hudhud, Dania; Caldera, Freddy; Cross, Raymond K (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-24)
    It is recommended that all patients with IBD undergo vaccination against COVID-19. In this commentary, we encourage IBD providers to serve as vaccine advocates and suggest implementing different methods for battling misinformation, paying careful attention to minority population.
  • Telehealth Adaptation for Multidisciplinary Colorectal Cancer Clinic During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Aghedo, Blessing O; Svoboda, Shane; Holmes, Leslie; Man, Lillian; Wu, Yin; Linder, Jeanette; D'Adamo, Christopher; Mavanur, Arun; Poehler, Kathryn; Codling, Deanna; et al. (Cureus, Inc., 2021-09-09)
    Background: The study objectives were to transition in-person colorectal cancer multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) to a telehealth MDC (tele-MDC) format and to assess early outcomes. Methods: A colorectal tele-MDC was devised, in which patients used remote-access technology while supervised by a clinician. The team consisted of surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists. Outcomes were assessed with patient and provider surveys, using a 5-point Likert scale (higher = more favorable). Results: A total of 18 patients participated in the tele-MDC. Surveyed patients (n=18) and physicians (n=19) were satisfied with the quality of care (mean Likert = 4.93, 4.53, respectively), and low standard deviations (range 0-1.03) across all questions reflected homogeneity in satisfaction with the metrics surveyed. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that a functional colorectal cancer tele-MDC is a feasible alternative to in-person MDC during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with the potential for a high degree of patient and physician satisfaction.
  • COVID-19 Presenting as Recurrent Pericardial Effusion

    Tran, Dena H; Gupta, Anuj; Verceles, Avelino C; Chow, Robert D (Cureus, Inc., 2021-10-11)
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from Wuhan, China, in 2019, causing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and creating a global pandemic affecting millions of people worldwide. Though COVID-19 primarily affects the pulmonary structures, deleterious effects can also occur in the cardiac system. We present a case of a patient with recurrent pericardial effusions secondary to COVID-19 infection, an unusual cardiovascular manifestation of this disease. A 47-year-old man presented with altered mental status and tested positive for COVID-19. He left against medical advice and later presented two weeks later with pleuritic chest pain associated with shortness of breath. His symptoms were attributed to a moderate- to large-sized pericardial effusion, without evidence of tamponade, as confirmed by echocardiography. The fluid was removed by pericardiocentesis; analysis was negative for malignant cells, inflammatory markers, or microbiologic studies. Reaccumulation of the fluid necessitated placement of a pericardial window, resulting in the resolution of his symptoms. There are limited case reports demonstrating the association of pericardial effusion with COVID-19 infection. The effusion is likely secondary to the inflammatory response leading to capillary leakage, resulting in pericardial fluid traversing the serous pericardium. In addition to other demonstrated cardiovascular effects, COVID-19 appears to be associated with recurrent pericardial effusion. Due to the rise in COVID-19 cases, it is essential to consider pericardial effusion as a rare but potential complication of this virus. The pericardial effusion can be the primary clinical manifestation, recurrent in nature, and potentially result in tamponade physiology.
  • Role of miR-2392 in driving SARS-CoV-2 infection

    McDonald, J Tyson; Enguita, Francisco J; Taylor, Deanne; Griffin, Robert J; Priebe, Waldemar; Emmett, Mark R; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Harris, Anthony D; Clement, Jean; Dybas, Joseph M; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-09-30)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation that have a major impact on many diseases and provide an exciting avenue toward antiviral therapeutics. From patient transcriptomic data, we determined that a circulating miRNA, miR-2392, is directly involved with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) machinery during host infection. Specifically, we show that miR-2392 is key in driving downstream suppression of mitochondrial gene expression, increasing inflammation, glycolysis, and hypoxia, as well as promoting many symptoms associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We demonstrate that miR-2392 is present in the blood and urine of patients positive for COVID-19 but is not present in patients negative for COVID-19. These findings indicate the potential for developing a minimally invasive COVID-19 detection method. Lastly, using in vitro human and in vivo hamster models, we design a miRNA-based antiviral therapeutic that targets miR-2392, significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 viability in hamsters, and may potentially inhibit a COVID-19 disease state in humans.
  • Biological and Psychological Factors Determining Neuropsychiatric Outcomes in COVID-19

    Tizenberg, Boris N; Brenner, Lisa A; Lowry, Christopher A; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O; Benavides, David R; Hoisington, Andrew J; Benros, Michael E; Stiller, John W; Kessler, Ronald C; Postolache, Teodor T (Springer Nature, 2021-10-01)
    Purpose of Review: We present biological and psychological factors implicated in psychiatric manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its neuroinvasive capability and immune pathophysiology. Recent Findings: Preexisting mental illness leads to worse clinical outcomes in COVID-19. The presence of the virus was reported in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue post-mortem. Most common psychiatric manifestations include delirium, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. “Long-COVID” non-syndromal presentations include “brain-fogginess,” autonomic instability, fatigue, and insomnia. Summary: SARS-CoV-2 infection can trigger prior vulnerabilities based on the priming of microglia and other cells, induced or perpetuated by aging and mental and physical illnesses. COVID-19 could further induce priming of neuroimmunological substrates leading to exacerbated immune response and autoimmunity targeting structures in the central nervous system (CNS), in response to minor immune activating environmental exposures, including stress, minor infections, allergens, pollutants, and traumatic brain injury. © 2021, This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.
  • The Application of a Hospital Medical Surge Preparedness Index to Assess National Pandemic and Other Mass Casualty Readiness

    Marcozzi, David E; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Lawler, James V; French, Michael T; Mecher, Carter; Baehr, Nicole E; Browne, Brian J (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-06-18)
    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This article describes the use and findings of the Hospital Medical Surge Preparedness Index (HMSPI) tool to improve the understanding of hospitals' ability to respond to mass casualty events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. For this investigation, data from the U.S. Census Bureau, the Dartmouth Atlas Project, and the 2005 to 2014 annual surveys of the American Hospital Association (AHA) were analyzed. The HMSPI tool uses variables from the AHA survey and the other two sources to allow facility, county, and referral area index calculations. Using the three data sets, the HMSPI also allows for an index calculation for per capita ratios and by political (state or county) boundaries. In this use case, the results demonstrated increases in county and state HMSPI scores through the period of analysis; however, no statistically significant difference was found in HMSPI scores between 2013 and 2014. The HMSPI builds on the limited scientific foundation of medical surge preparedness and could serve as an objective and standardized measure to assess the nation's medical readiness for crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic and other large-scale emergencies such as mass shootings. Future studies are encouraged to refine the score, assess the validity of the HMSPI, and evaluate its relevance in response to future legislative and executive policies that affect preparedness measures. Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives.
  • The Rapid Evaluation of COVID-19 Vaccination in Emergency Departments for Underserved Patients Study

    Rodriguez, Robert M; Torres, Jesus R; Chang, Anna Marie; Haggins, Adrianne N; Eucker, Stephanie A; O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Anderson, Erik; Miller, Daniel G; Wilkerson, R Gentry; Caldwell, Martina; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-05-31)
    Study objective: Emergency departments (EDs) often serve vulnerable populations who may lack primary care and have suffered disproportionate COVID-19 pandemic effects. Comparing patients having and lacking a regular source of medical care and other ED patient characteristics, we assessed COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, reasons for not wanting the vaccine, perceived access to vaccine sites, and willingness to get the vaccine as part of ED care. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted from December 10, 2020, to March 7, 2021, at 15 safety net US EDs. Primary outcomes were COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, reasons for vaccine hesitancy, and sites (including EDs) for potential COVID-19 vaccine receipt. Results: Of 2,575 patients approached, 2,301 (89.4%) participated. Of the 18.4% of respondents who lacked a regular source of medical care, 65% used the ED as their usual source of health care. The overall rate of vaccine hesitancy was 39%; the range among the 15 sites was 28% to 58%. Respondents who lacked a regular source of medical care were more commonly vaccine hesitant than those who had a regular source of medical care (47% versus 38%, 9% difference, 95% confidence interval 4% to 14%). Other characteristics associated with greater vaccine hesitancy were younger age, female sex, Black race, Latinx ethnicity, and not having received an influenza vaccine in the past 5 years. Of the 61% who would accept a COVID-19 vaccine, 21% stated that they lacked a primary physician or clinic at which to receive it; the vast majority (95%) of these respondents would accept the COVID-19 vaccine as part of their care in the ED. Conclusion: ED patients who lack a regular source of medical care are particularly hesitant regarding COVID-19 vaccination. Most COVID-19 vaccine acceptors would accept it as part of their care in the ED. EDs may play pivotal roles in COVID-19 vaccine messaging and delivery to highly vulnerable populations.
  • Pain experience and mood disorders during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States: an opportunistic study

    Colloca, Luana; Thomas, Sharon; Yin, Margaret; Haycock, Nathaniel R; Wang, Yang (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-09-23)
    Introduction: The unknown and uncontrollable situation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have triggered changes in pain, anxiety, and depression along with a perception of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms. Objectives: We determined how anxiety, depression, and pain outcomes varied during the “Stay-at-Home” order compared with the prepandemic period and whether nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms would occur. Methods: We conducted an online survey to opportunistically reassess clinical anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference while controlling for somatic symptom severity during the prepandemic and Stay-at-Home order period. During the Stay-at-Home period, anxiety, depression, pain intensity, and pain interference were reassessed. Coping strategies were assessed as a critical factor influencing pain behaviors. In addition, we explored the occurrence of nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms with an ad hoc survey referencing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publicly available COVID-19 symptoms. Results: We observed a significant increase in depression and anxiety levels during the Stay-at-Home period. Coping strategy changes (eg, increased exercise) were linked to lower pain severity and interference which improved overall. Participants who self-reported nonspecific COVID-19 symptoms had higher prepandemic depression. Among the 72 participants not diagnosed with COVID-19, 70.8% of the participants experienced symptoms resembling those associated with COVID-19. Conclusion: We suggest the parallel between pain outcome improvement and worsening anxiety and depression during the Stay-at-Home order might reflect a shift in symptoms, indicating that those patients with underlying mood disorders may require more help than they did before the pandemic.
  • The cost-effectiveness of common strategies for the prevention of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in universities

    Zafari, Zafar; Goldman, Lee; Kovrizhkin, Katia; Muennig, Peter Alexander (Public Library of Science, 2021-09-30)
    Background: Most universities that re-open in the United States (US) for in-person instruction have implemented the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) guidelines. The value of additional interventions to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. We calculated the cost-effectiveness and cases averted of each intervention in combination with implementing the CDC guidelines. Methods: We built a decision-analytic model to examine the cost-effectiveness of interventions to re-open universities. The interventions included implementing the CDC guidelines alone and in combination with 1) a symptom-checking mobile application, 2) university-provided standardized, high filtration masks, 3) thermal cameras for temperature screening, 4) one-time entry ('gateway') polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, and 5) weekly PCR testing. We also modeled a package of interventions ('package intervention') that combines the CDC guidelines with using the symptom-checking mobile application, standardized masks, gateway PCR testing, and weekly PCR testing. The direct and indirect costs were calculated in 2020 US dollars. We also provided an online interface that allows the user to change model parameters. Results: All interventions averted cases of COVID-19. When the prevalence of actively infectious cases reached 0.1%, providing standardized, high filtration masks saved money and improved health relative to implementing the CDC guidelines alone and in combination with using the symptom-checking mobile application, thermal cameras, and gateway testing. Compared with standardized masks, weekly PCR testing cost $9.27 million (95% Credible Interval [CrI]: cost-saving-$77.36 million)/QALY gained. Compared with weekly PCR testing, the 'package' intervention cost $137,877 (95% CrI: $3,108-$19.11 million)/QALY gained. At both a prevalence of 1% and 2%, the 'package' intervention saved money and improved health compared to all the other interventions. Conclusions: All interventions were effective at averting infection from COVID-19. However, when the prevalence of actively infectious cases in the community was low, only standardized, high filtration masks clearly provided value.
  • Addressing and Inspiring Vaccine Confidence in Black, Indigenous, and People of Color During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic

    Marcelin, Jasmine R; Swartz, Talia H; Bernice, Fidelia; Berthaud, Vladimir; Christian, Robbie; da Costa, Christopher; Fadul, Nada; Floris-Moore, Michelle; Hlatshwayo, Matifadza; Johansson, Patrik; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-08-09)
    During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we have witnessed profound health inequities suffered by Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). These manifested as differential access to testing early in the pandemic, rates of severe disease and death 2-3 times higher than white Americans, and, now, significantly lower vaccine uptake compared with their share of the population affected by COVID-19. This article explores the impact of these COVID-19 inequities (and the underlying cause, structural racism) on vaccine acceptance in BIPOC populations, ways to establish trustworthiness of healthcare institutions, increase vaccine access for BIPOC communities, and inspire confidence in COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Duration of SARS-CoV-2 sero-positivity in a large longitudinal sero-surveillance cohort: the COVID-19 Community Research Partnership

    Herrington, David M.; Sanders, John W.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Alexander-Miller, Martha; Espeland, Mark; Bertoni, Alain G.; Mathews, Allison; Seals, Austin L.; Munawar, Iqra; Runyon, Michael S.; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-08-30)
    Background: Estimating population prevalence and incidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential to formulate public health recommendations concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. However, interpreting estimates based on sero-surveillance requires an understanding of the duration of elevated antibodies following SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in the large number of people with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic disease. Methods: We examined > 30,000 serology assays for SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgM assays acquired longitudinally in 11,468 adults between April and November 2020 in the COVID-19 Community Research Partnership. Results: Among participants with serologic evidence for infection but few or no symptoms or clinical disease, roughly 50% sero-reverted in 30 days of their initial positive test. Sero-reversion occurred more quickly for IgM than IgG and for antibodies targeting nucleocapsid protein compared with spike proteins, but was not associated with age, sex, race/ethnicity, or healthcare worker status. Conclusions: The short duration of antibody response suggests that the true population prevalence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection may be significantly higher than presumed based on earlier sero-surveillance studies. The impact of the large number of minimally symptomatic COVID-19 cases with only a brief antibody response on population immunity remains to be determined.
  • Opportunities and Challenges in North-South and South-South Global Health Collaborations During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The AFREhealth-CUGH Experience (as Reported at the CUGH 2021 Satellite Meeting)

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Kazembe, Abigail; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Khanyola, Judy; Wasserheit, Judith N; Kilmarx, Peter H; Nachega, Jean B (Ubiquity Press, 2021-09-09)
    Sustainable and equitable partnerships and collaborations between the Global North and Global South (as well as within the Global South) have been aspirations (if seldom achieved) of the "global health" endeavor over the past couple of decades. The COVID-19 pandemic led to global lockdowns that disrupted international travel and severely challenged these partnerships, providing a critical space for self-reflection on global health as a discipline. One major global north-south partnership is that between the African Forum for Research and Education in Health (AFREhealth) and the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH). This article reports on a recent Satellite meeting of the AFREhealth-CUGH Working Group (ACWG) at the CUGH 2021 virtual conference in March 2021 that provided insights on North-South and South-South global health partnerships, against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors describe challenges and opportunities for research and education in these partnerships (as discussed at this ACWG Satellite meeting), and implications for the field of global health going forward as we emerge from the pandemic.
  • Remdesivir-associated bradycardia

    Ching, Patrick R; Lee, Calvin (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-09-03)
    Remdesivir is an antiviral used for the treatment of COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation. Information on its cardiovascular safety profile is scarce. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with COVID-19 who developed bradycardia after receiving remdesivir. We recommend a baseline ECG for all patients prior to receiving remdesivir and continuous cardiac monitoring during treatment, especially among those with underlying cardiovascular disease, elderly and using β-blockers.

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