It's the fiber, not the fat: significant effects of dietary challenge on the gut microbiome
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AbstractBACKGROUND: Dietary effects on the gut microbiome play key roles in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and behavioral dysregulation. Often overlooked in such studies is the consideration that experimental diets vary significantly in the proportion and source of their dietary fiber. Commonly, treatment comparisons are made between animals fed a purchased refined diet that lacks soluble fiber and animals fed a standard vivarium-provided chow diet that contains a rich source of soluble fiber. Despite the well-established critical role of soluble fiber as the source of short chain fatty acid production via the gut microbiome, the extent to which measured outcomes are driven by differences in dietary fiber is unclear. Further, the interaction between sex and age in response to dietary transition is likely important and should also be considered. RESULTS: We compared the impact of transitioning young adult and 1-year aged male and female mice from their standard chow diet to a refined low soluble fiber diet on gut microbiota community composition. Then, to determine the contribution of dietary fat, we also examined the impact of transitioning a subset of animals from refined low-fat to refined high-fat diet. We used a serial sampling strategy coupled with 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing to examine consequences of recurrent dietary switching on gut microbiota community dynamics. Analysis revealed that the transition from a chow diet to a refined diet that lacks soluble fiber accounted for most of the variance in community structure, diversity, and composition across all groups. This dietary transition was characterized by a loss of taxa within the phylum Bacteroidetes and expansion of Clostridia and Proteobacteria in a sex- and age-specific manner. Most notably, no changes to gut microbiota community structure and composition were observed between mice consuming either refined low- or high-fat diet, suggesting that transition to the refined diet that lacks soluble fiber is the primary driver of gut microbiota alterations, with limited additional impact of dietary fat on gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results show that the choice of control diet has a significant impact on outcomes and interpretation related to diet effects on gut microbiota. As the reduction of soluble fiber may influence synthesis of microbial metabolites that are important for regulating metabolic, immune, behavioral, and neurobiological outcomes, additional studies are now needed to fully delineate the contribution of fat and fiber on the gut microbiome. Video Abtract.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85079336946&doi=10.1186%2fs40168-020-0791-6&partnerID=40&md5=ba5240c671b6af3a5971845dec3277ed; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/12051
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