Infrastructure and organization of adult intensive care units in resource-limited settings
JournalSepsis Management in Resource-limited Settings
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
MetadataShow full item record
In this chapter, we provide guidance on some basic structural requirements, focusing on organization, staffing, and infrastructure. We suggest a closed-format intensive care unit (ICU) with dedicated physicians and nurses, specifically trained in intensive care medicine whenever feasible. Regarding infrastructural components, a reliable electricity supply is essential, with adequate backup systems. Facilities for oxygen therapy are crucial, and the choice between oxygen concentrators, cylinders, and a centralized system depends on the setting. For use in mechanical ventilators, a centralized piped system is preferred. Facilities for proper hand hygiene are essential. Alcohol-based solutions are preferred, except in the context of Ebola virus disease (chloride-based solutions) and Clostridium difficile infection (soap and water). Availability of disposable gloves is important for self-protection; for invasive procedures masks, caps, sterile gowns, sterile drapes, and sterile gloves are recommended. Caring for patients with highly contagious infectious diseases requires access to personal protective equipment. Basic ICU equipment should include vital signs monitors and mechanical ventilators, which should also deliver noninvasive ventilator modes. We suggest that ICUs providing invasive ventilatory support have the ability to measure end-tidal carbon dioxide and if possible can perform blood gas analysis. We recommend availability of glucometers and capabilities for measuring blood lactate. We suggest implementation of bedside ultrasound as diagnostic tool. Finally, we recommend proper administration of patient data; suggest development of locally applicable bundles, protocols, and checklists for the management of sepsis; and implement systematic collection of quality and performance indicators to guide improvements in ICU performance.
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85079107350&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-03143-5_3&partnerID=40&md5=626e1ad933e3262c321030f454954001; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/12032