Region-specific sialylation pattern of prion strains provides novel insight into prion neurotropism
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
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AbstractMammalian prions are unconventional infectious agents that invade and replicate in an organism by recruiting a normal form of a prion protein (PrPC) and converting it into misfolded, disease-associated state referred to as PrPSc. PrPC is posttranslationally modified with two N-linked glycans. Prion strains replicate by selecting substrates from a large pool of PrPC sialoglycoforms expressed by a host. Brain regions have different vulnerability to prion infection, however, molecular mechanisms underlying selective vulnerability is not well understood. Toward addressing this question, the current study looked into a possibility that sialylation of PrPSc might be involved in defining selective vulnerability of brain regions. The current work found that in 22L-infected animals, PrPSc is indeed sialylated in a region dependent manner. PrPSc in hippocampus and cortex was more sialylated than PrPSc from thalamus and stem. Similar trends were also observed in brain materials from RML-and ME7-infected animals. The current study established that PrPSc sialylation status is indeed region-specific. Together with previous studies demonstrating that low sialylation status accelerates prion replication, this work suggests that high vulnerability of certain brain region to prion infection could be attributed to their low sialylation status. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
SponsorsThis research was funded by the National Institute of Health Grants R01 NS045585 and R01 AI128925.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Identifier to cite or link to this itemhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85078845459&doi=10.3390%2fijms21030828&partnerID=40&md5=59a6239d5bedae0fd0b2f573ec72d134; http://hdl.handle.net/10713/11981
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Preserving prion strain identity upon replication of prions in vitro using recombinant prion proteinMakarava, N.; Savtchenko, R.; Lasch, P. (BMC, 2018)Last decade witnessed an enormous progress in generating authentic infectious prions or PrPSc in vitro using recombinant prion protein (rPrP). Previous work established that rPrP that lacks posttranslational modification is able to support replication of highly infectious PrPSc with assistance of cofactors of polyanionic nature and/or lipids. Unexpectedly, previous studies also revealed that seeding of rPrP by brain-derived PrPSc gave rise to new prion strains with new disease phenotypes documenting loss of a strain identity upon replication in rPrP substrate. Up to now, it remains unclear whether prion strain identity can be preserved upon replication in rPrP. The current study reports that faithful replication of hamster strain SSLOW could be achieved in vitro using rPrP as a substrate. We found that a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and synthetic nucleic acid polyA was sufficient for stable replication of hamster brain-derived SSLOW PrPSc in serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (sPMCA) that uses hamster rPrP as a substrate. The disease phenotype generated in hamsters upon transmission of recombinant PrPSc produced in vitro was strikingly similar to the original SSLOW diseases phenotype with respect to the incubation time to disease, as well as clinical, neuropathological and biochemical features. Infrared microspectroscopy (IR-MSP) indicated that PrPSc produced in animals upon transmission of recombinant PrPSc is structurally similar if not identical to the original SSLOW PrPSc. The current study is the first to demonstrate that rPrP can support replication of brain-derived PrPSc while preserving its strain identity. In addition, the current work is the first to document that successful propagation of a hamster strain could be achieved in vitro using hamster rPrP.
Correction to: preserving prion strain identity upon replication of prions in vitro using recombinant prion protein (Acta neuropathologica communications (2018) 6 1 (92))Makarava, N.; Savtchenko, R.; Lasch, P. (BMC, 2018)Figure 6 of the original publication  contained an error in the Wavenumber in panels B and C. The wavenumbers 1616 (Cm-1) in panels B and C should have been 1516 (cm-1). The updated figure has been published in this correction article; the original article has been updated.
Prion replication environment defines the fate of prion strain adaptationKatorcha, E.; Gonzalez-Montalban, N.; Makarava, N. (Public Library of Science, 2018)The main risk of emergence of prion diseases in humans is associated with a cross-species transmission of prions of zoonotic origin. Prion transmission between species is regulated by a species barrier. Successful cross-species transmission is often accompanied by strain adaptation and result in stable changes of strain-specific disease phenotype. Amino acid sequences of host PrPCand donor PrPScas well as strain-specific structure of PrPScare believed to be the main factors that control species barrier and strain adaptation. Yet, despite our knowledge of the primary structures of mammalian prions, predicting the fate of prion strain adaptation is very difficult if possible at all. The current study asked the question whether changes in cofactor environment affect the fate of prions adaptation. To address this question, hamster strain 263K was propagated under normal or RNA-depleted conditions using serial Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) conducted first in mouse and then hamster substrates. We found that 263K propagated under normal conditions in mouse and then hamster substrates induced the disease phenotype similar to the original 263K. Surprisingly, 263K that propagated first in RNA-depleted mouse substrate and then normal hamster substrate produced a new disease phenotype upon serial transmission. Moreover, 263K that propagated in RNA-depleted mouse and then RNA-depleted hamster substrates failed to induce clinical diseases for three serial passages despite a gradual increase of PrPScin animals. To summarize, depletion of RNA in prion replication reactions changed the rate of strain adaptation and the disease phenotype upon subsequent serial passaging of PMCA-derived materials in animals. The current studies suggest that replication environment plays an important role in determining the fate of prion strain adaptation. Copyright 2018 Katorcha et al. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/