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dc.contributor.authorInglut, C.T.
dc.contributor.authorAhmad, H.
dc.contributor.authorHuang, H.-C.
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-04T16:19:38Z
dc.date.available2020-02-04T16:19:38Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85078471346&doi=10.3390%2fnano10020190&partnerID=40&md5=51c5684c11d756cafc8a8d0f1c2e70a0
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10713/11651
dc.description.abstractLiposomes hold great potential as gene and drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and modular properties, coupled with the major advantage of attenuating the risk of systemic toxicity from the encapsulated therapeutic agent. Decades of research have been dedicated to studying and optimizing liposomal formulations for a variety of medical applications, ranging from cancer therapeutics to analgesics. Some effort has also been made to elucidate the toxicities and immune responses that these drug formulations may elicit. Notably, intravenously injected liposomes can interact with plasma proteins, leading to opsonization, thereby altering the healthy cells they come into contact with during circulation and removal. Additionally, due to the pharmacokinetics of liposomes in circulation, drugs can end up sequestered in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, affecting liver and spleen function. Importantly, liposomal agents can also stimulate or suppress the immune system depending on their physiochemical properties, such as size, lipid composition, pegylation, and surface charge. Despite the surge in the clinical use of liposomal agents since 1995, there are still several drawbacks that limit their range of applications. This review presents a focused analysis of these limitations, with an emphasis on toxicity to healthy tissues and unfavorable immune responses, to shed light on key considerations that should be factored into the design and clinical use of liposomal formulations. Copyright 2020 by the authors.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health, NIH: R00CA194269en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020190en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.relation.ispartofNanomaterials
dc.subjectCanceren_US
dc.subjectGene and drug deliveryen_US
dc.subjectImmunomodulationen_US
dc.subjectLiposomesen_US
dc.subjectToxicityen_US
dc.titleImmunological and toxicological considerations for the design of liposomesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/nano10020190


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