• ZOOMICS: Comparative Metabolomics of Red Blood Cells From Guinea Pigs, Humans, and Non-human Primates During Refrigerated Storage for Up to 42 Days.

      Bertolone, Lorenzo; Shin, Hye Kyung H; Baek, Jin Hyen; Gao, Yamei; Spitalnik, Steven L; Buehler, Paul W; D'Alessandro, Angelo (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-03-21)
      Unlike other rodents, guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have evolutionarily lost their capacity to synthesize vitamin C (ascorbate) de novo and, like several non-human primates and humans, rely on dietary intake and glutathione-dependent recycling to cope with oxidant stress. This is particularly relevant in red blood cell physiology, and especially when modeling blood storage, which exacerbates erythrocyte oxidant stress. Herein we provide a comprehensive metabolomics analysis of fresh and stored guinea pig red blood cell concentrates (n = 20), with weekly sampling from storage day 0 through 42. Results were compared to previously published ZOOMICS studies on red blood cells from three additional species with genetic loss of L-gulonolactone oxidase function, including humans (n = 21), olive baboons (n = 20), and rhesus macaques (n = 20). While metabolic trends were comparable across all species, guinea pig red blood cells demonstrated accelerated alterations of the metabolic markers of the storage lesion that are consistent with oxidative stress. Compared to the other species, guinea pig red blood cells showed aberrant glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway end product metabolites, purine breakdown products, methylation, glutaminolysis, and markers of membrane lipid remodeling. Consistently, guinea pig red blood cells demonstrated higher end storage hemolysis, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed a higher degree of morphological alterations of their red blood cells, as compared to the other species. Despite a genetic inability to produce ascorbate that is common to the species evaluated, guinea pig red blood cells demonstrate accelerated oxidant stress under standard storage conditions. These data may offer relevant insights into the basal and cold storage metabolism of red blood cells from species that cannot synthesize endogenous ascorbate.