• Orthodontic force induces nerve injury-like transcriptomic changes driven by TRPV1-expressing afferents in mouse trigeminal ganglia.

      Wang, Sheng; Chung, Man-Kyo (SAGE Publications Inc., 2020-11-20)
      Orthodontic force produces mechanical irritation and localized inflammation in the periodontium, which causes pain in most patients. Nocifensive behaviors resulting from orthodontic force in mice can be substantially attenuated by intraganglionic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a neurotoxin that specifically ablates a subset of neurons expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In the current study, we determined changes in the transcriptomic profiles in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) following the application of orthodontic force, and assessed the roles of TRPV1-expressing afferents in these transcriptomic changes. RTX or vehicle was injected into the TG of mice a week before the placement of an orthodontic spring exerting 10 g of force. After 2 days, the TG were collected for RNA sequencing. The application of orthodontic force resulted in 1279 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the TG. Gene ontology analysis showed downregulation of gliogenesis and ion channel activities, especially of voltage-gated potassium channels. DEGs produced by orthodontic force correlated more strongly with DEGs resulting from nerve injury than from inflammation. Orthodontic force resulted in the differential expression of multiple genes involved in pain regulation, including upregulation of Atf3, Adcyap1, Bdnf, and Csf1, and downregulation of Scn10a, Kcna2, Kcnj10, and P2ry1. Orthodontic force-induced DEGs correlated with DEGs specific to multiple neuronal and non-neuronal subtypes following nerve injury. These transcriptomic changes were abolished in the mice that received the RTX injection. These results suggest that orthodontic force produces transcriptomic changes resembling nerve injury in the TG and that nociceptive inputs through TRPV1-expressing afferents leads to subsequent changes in gene expression not only in TRPV1-positive neurons, but also in TRPV1-negative neurons and non-neuronal cells throughout the ganglia. Orthodontic force-induced transcriptomic changes might be an active regenerative program of trigeminal ganglia in response to axonal injury following orthodontic force.