• Focal intra-colon cooling reduces organ injury and systemic inflammation after REBOA management of lethal hemorrhage in rats

      Arya, Awadhesh K; Hu, Kurt; Subedi, Lalita; Li, Tieluo; Hu, Bingren (Springer Nature, 2021-07-01)
      Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a lifesaving maneuver for the management of lethal torso hemorrhage. However, its prolonged use leads to distal organ ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The objective of this study is to investigate the blood-based biomarkers of IRI and SIRS and the efficacy of direct intestinal cooling in the prevention of IRI and SIRS. A rat lethal hemorrhage model was produced by bleeding 50% of the total blood volume. A balloon catheter was inserted into the aorta for the implementation of REBOA. A novel TransRectal Intra-Colon (TRIC) device was placed in the descending colon and activated from 10 min after the bleeding to maintain the intra-colon temperature at 37 °C (TRIC37°C group) or 12 °C (TRIC12°C group) for 270 min. The upper body temperature was maintained at as close to 37 °C as possible in both groups. Blood samples were collected before hemorrhage and after REBOA. The organ injury biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by ELISA method. Blood based organ injury biomarkers (endotoxin, creatinine, AST, FABP1/L-FABP, cardiac troponin I, and FABP2/I-FABP) were all drastically increased in TRIC37°C group after REBOA. TRIC12°C significantly downregulated these increased organ injury biomarkers. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1b, and IL-17F were also drastically increased in TRIC37°C group after REBOA. TRIC12°C significantly downregulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, TRIC12°C significantly upregulated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 after REBOA. Amazingly, the mortality rate was 100% in TRIC37°C group whereas 0% in TRIC12°C group after REBOA. Directly cooling the intestine offered exceptional protection of the abdominal organs from IRI and SIRS, switched from a harmful pro-inflammatory to a reparative anti-inflammatory response, and mitigated mortality in the rat model of REBOA management of lethal hemorrhage.