• Feasibility of basic transesophageal echocardiography in hemorrhagic shock: Potential applications during resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA)

      Teeter, W.A.; Conti, B.M.; Wasicek, P.J. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018)
      Background: There are numerous studies in the cardiovascular literature that have employed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in swine models, but data regarding the use of basic TEE in swine models is limited. The primary aim of this study is to describe an echocardiographic method that can be used with relative ease to qualitatively assess cardiovascular function in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model using resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). Methods: Multiplane basic TEE exams were performed in 15 during an experimental hemorrhage model using REBOA. Cardiac anatomical structure and functional measurements were obtained. In a convenience sample (two animals from each group), advanced functional cardiovascular measurements were obtained before and after REBOA inflation for comparison with qualitative assessments. Results: Basic TEE exams were performed in 15 swine. Appropriate REBOA placement was confirmed using TEE in all animals and verified with fluoroscopy. Left ventricular volume was decreased in all animals, and left ventricular systolic function increased following REBOA inflation. Right ventricular systolic function and volume remained normal prior to and after hemorrhage and REBOA use. Mean ejection fraction (EF) decreased from 64% (S.D. 9.6) to 62.1 (S.D. 16.8) after hemorrhage and REBOA inflation (p = 0.76); fractional area of change (FAC) decreased from 49.8 (S.D. 9.0) to 48.5 (S.D. 13.6) after hemorrhage and REBOA inflation (p = 0.82). Conclusion: Basic TEE, which requires less training than advanced TEE, may be employed by laboratory investigators and practitioners across a wide spectrum of experimental and clinical settings. Copyright 2018 The Author(s).