• A Fc-enhanced NTD-binding non-neutralizing antibody delays virus spread and synergizes with a nAb to protect mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection.

      Beaudoin-Bussières, Guillaume; Chen, Yaozong; Ullah, Irfan; Prévost, Jérémie; Tolbert, William D; Symmes, Kelly; Ding, Shilei; Benlarbi, Mehdi; Gong, Shang Yu; Tauzin, Alexandra; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-01-25)
      Emerging evidence indicates that both neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector functions of antibodies contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear whether Fc-effector functions alone can protect against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we isolated CV3-13, a non-neutralizing antibody, from a convalescent individual with potent Fc-mediated effector functions. The cryoelectron microscopy structure of CV3-13 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals that the antibody binds from a distinct angle of approach to an N-terminal domain (NTD) epitope that only partially overlaps with the NTD supersite recognized by neutralizing antibodies. CV3-13 does not alter the replication dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice, but its Fc-enhanced version significantly delays virus spread, neuroinvasion, and death in prophylactic settings. Interestingly, the combination of Fc-enhanced non-neutralizing CV3-13 with Fc-compromised neutralizing CV3-25 completely protects mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, our data demonstrate that efficient Fc-mediated effector functions can potently contribute to the in vivo efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.