• Associations between Household-Level Exposures and All-Cause Diarrhea and Pathogen-Specific Enteric Infections in Children Enrolled in Five Sentinel Surveillance Studies

      Colston, Josh M; Faruque, Abu S G; Hossain, M Jahangir; Saha, Debasish; Kanungo, Suman; Mandomando, Inácio; Nisar, M Imran; Zaidi, Anita K M; Omore, Richard; Breiman, Robert F; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-11-02)
      Diarrheal disease remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity causing poor health and economic outcomes. In low-resource settings, young children are exposed to numerous risk factors for enteric pathogen transmission within their dwellings, though the relative importance of different transmission pathways varies by pathogen species. The objective of this analysis was to model associations between five household-level risk factors—water, sanitation, flooring, caregiver education, and crowding—and infection status for endemic enteric pathogens in children in five surveillance studies. Data were combined from 22 sites in which a total of 58,000 stool samples were tested for 16 specific enteropathogens using qPCR. Risk ratios for pathogen-and taxon-specific infection status were modeled using generalized linear models along with hazard ratios for all-cause diarrhea in proportional hazard models, with the five household-level variables as primary exposures adjusting for covariates. Improved drinking water sources conferred a 17% reduction in diarrhea risk; however, the direction of its association with particular pathogens was inconsistent. Improved sanitation was associated with a 9% reduction in diarrhea risk with protective effects across pathogen species and taxa of around 10–20% risk reduction. A 9% reduction in diarrhea risk was observed in subjects with covered floors, which were also associated with decreases in risk for zoonotic enteropathogens. Caregiver education and household crowding showed more modest, inconclusive results. Combining data from diverse sites, this analysis quantified associations between five household-level exposures on risk of specific enteric infections, effects which differed by pathogen species but were broadly consistent with hypothesized transmission mechanisms. Such estimates may be used within expanded water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs to target interventions to the particular pathogen profiles of individual communities and prioritize resources. © 2020 by the authors.
    • Evolution of Nipah Virus Infection: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

      Hauser, Naomi; Gushiken, Alexis C; Narayanan, Shivakumar; Kottilil, Shyam; Chua, Joel V (MDPI AG, 2021-02-14)
      Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus of the Henipavirus genus first identified in Malaysia in 1998. Henipaviruses have bat reservoir hosts and have been isolated from fruit bats found across Oceania, Asia, and Africa. Bat-to-human transmission is thought to be the primary mode of human NiV infection, although multiple intermediate hosts are described. Human infections with NiV were originally described as a syndrome of fever and rapid neurological decline following contact with swine. More recent outbreaks describe a syndrome with prominent respiratory symptoms and human-to-human transmission. Nearly annual outbreaks have been described since 1998 with case fatality rates reaching greater than 90%. The ubiquitous nature of the reservoir host, increasing deforestation, multiple mode of transmission, high case fatality rate, and lack of effective therapy or vaccines make NiV's pandemic potential increasingly significant. Here we review the epidemiology and microbiology of NiV as well as the therapeutic agents and vaccines in development.