• Global proteomics of Ubqln2-based murine models of ALS

      Whiteley, Alexandra M; Prado, Miguel A; de Poot, Stefanie A H; Paulo, Joao A; Ashton, Marissa; Dominguez, Sara; Weber, Martin; Ngu, Hai; Szpyt, John; Jedrychowski, Mark P; et al. (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc., 2020-12-04)
      Familial neurodegenerative diseases commonly involve mutations that result in either aberrant proteins or dysfunctional components of the proteolytic  machinery that acts on aberrant proteins. UBQLN2 is a ubiquitin receptor of the UBL/UBA family that binds the proteasome through its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain and is thought to deliver ubiquitinated proteins to proteasomes for degradation. UBQLN2 mutations result in familial ALS/FTD in humans through an unknown mechanism. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics was used to provide for the first time an unbiased and global analysis of the role of Ubqln2 in controlling the composition of the proteome. We studied several murine models of Ubqln2-linked ALS and also generated Ubqln2 null mutant mice. We identified impacts of Ubqln2 on diverse physiological pathways, most notably serotonergic signaling. Interestingly, we observed upregulation of proteasome subunits, suggesting a compensatory response to diminished proteasome output. Among the specific proteins whose abundance is linked to UBQLN2 function, the strongest hits were the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 and two retroelement-derived proteins, PEG10 and CXX1B. Cycloheximide chase studies using induced human neurons and HEK293 cells suggested that PEG10 and TRIM32 are direct clients. Although directing the degradation of multiple proteins via the proteasome, UBQLN2 surprisingly conferred strong protection from degradation on the Gag-like protein CXX1B, which is expressed from the same family of retroelement genes as PEG10. In summary, this study charts the proteomic landscape of ALS-related Ubqln2 mutants and identifies candidate client proteins that are altered in vivo in disease models and whose degradation is promoted by UBQLN2.
    • Risk1, a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Effector, Promotes Rickettsia typhi Intracellular Survival

      Voss, O.H.; Gillespie, J.J.; Lehman, S.S.; Rennoll, S.A.; Beier-Sexton, M.; Rahman, M.S.; Azad, A.F. (American Society for Microbiology, 2020)
      To establish a habitable intracellular niche, various pathogenic bacteria secrete effectors that target intracellular trafficking and modulate phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Murine typhus, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia typhi, remains a severe disease in humans. However, the mechanisms by which R. typhi effector molecules contribute to internalization by induced phagocytosis and subsequent phagosomal escape into the cytosol to facilitate the intracellular growth of the bacteria remain ill-defined. Here, we characterize a new molecule, Risk1, as a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) secreted effector and the first bacterial secretory kinase with both class I and III PI3K activities. Inactivation of Risk1 PI3K activities reduced the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate within the host, which consequently diminished host colonization by R. typhi During infection, Risk1 targets the Rab5-EEA1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] signaling axis to promote bacterial phagosomal escape. Subsequently, R. typhi undergoes ubiquitination and induces host autophagy; however, maturation to autolysosomes is subverted to support intracellular growth. Intriguingly, only enzymatically active Risk1 binds the Beclin-1 core complex and contributes to R. typhi-induced autophagosome formation. In sum, our data suggest that Risk1, with dual class I and class III PI3K activities, alters host PI metabolism and consequently subverts intracellular trafficking to facilitate intracellular growth of R. typhiIMPORTANCERickettsia species are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of eukaryotes and vertebrates. In particular, human body louse-borne Rickettsia prowazekii and flea-borne Rickettsia typhi have historically plagued humankind and continue to reemerge globally. The unavailability of vaccines and limited effectiveness of antibiotics late in infection place lethality rates up to 30%, highlighting the need to elucidate the mechanisms of Rickettsia pathogenicity in greater detail. Here, we characterize a new effector, Risk1, as a secreted phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with unique dual class I and class III activities. Risk1 is required for host colonization, and its vacuolar phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate generation modulates endosomal trafficking to arrest autophagosomal maturation. Collectively, Risk1 facilitates R. typhi growth by altering phosphoinositide metabolism and subverting intracellular trafficking. Copyright 2020 Voss et al.