• Characterization of the Plasma Lipidome in Dairy Cattle Transitioning from Gestation to Lactation: Identifying Novel Biomarkers of Metabolic Impairment

      Rico, Jorge Eduardo; Saed Samii, Sina; Zang, Yu; Deme, Pragney; Haughey, Norman J; Grilli, Ester; McFadden, Joseph W (MDPI AG, 2021-04-30)
      The discovery of novel biomarkers for peripartal diseases in dairy cows can improve our understanding of normal and dysfunctional metabolism, and lead to nutritional interventions that improve health and milk production. Our objectives were to characterize the plasma lipidome and identify metabolites associated with common markers of metabolic disease in peripartal dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 27) were enrolled 30 d prior to expected parturition. Blood and liver samples were routinely collected through to d 14 postpartum. Untargeted lipidomics was performed using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Based on postpartum measures, cows were categorized into low or high total fatty acid area under the curve (total FAAUC; d 1-14 postpartum; 4915 ± 1369 vs. 12,501 ± 2761 (μmol/L × 14 d); n = 18), β-hydroxybutyrate AUC (BHBAAUC; d 1-14 postpartum; 4583 ± 459 vs. 7901 ± 1206 (μmol/L × 14 d); n = 18), or liver lipid content (d 5 and 14 postpartum; 5 ± 1 vs. 12 ± 2% of wet weight; n = 18). Cows displayed decreases in plasma triacylglycerols and monoalkyl-diacylglycerols, and the majority of phospholipids reached a nadir at parturition. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) 32:3, 35:5, and 37:5 were specific for high total FAAUC, PC 31:3, 32:3, 35:5, and 37:5 were specific for high BHBAAUC, and PC 31:2, 31:3, and 32:3 were specific for high liver lipid content. PC 32:3 was specific for elevated total FA, BHBA, and liver lipid content. Lipidomics revealed a dynamic peripartal lipidome remodeling, and lipid markers associated with elevated total FA, BHBA, and liver lipid content. The effectiveness of nutrition to impact these lipid biomarkers for preventing excess lipolysis and fatty liver warrants evaluation.
    • Deuterated Linoleic Acid Attenuates the RBC Storage Lesion in a Mouse Model of Poor RBC Storage.

      Kim, Christopher Y; Johnson, Hannah; Peltier, Sandy; Spitalnik, Steven L; Hod, Eldad A; Francis, Richard O; Hudson, Krystalyn E; Stone, Elizabeth F; Gordy, Dominique E; Fu, Xiaoyun; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-04-26)
      Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important modulators of red blood cell (RBC) rheology. Dietary PUFAs are readily incorporated into the RBC membrane, improving RBC deformability, fluidity, and hydration. However, enriching the lipid membrane with PUFAs increases the potential for peroxidation in oxidative environments (e.g., refrigerated storage), resulting in membrane damage. Substitution of bis-allylic hydrogens with deuterium ions in PUFAs decreases hydrogen abstraction, thereby inhibiting peroxidation. If lipid peroxidation is a causal factor in the RBC storage lesion, incorporation of deuterated linoleic acid (DLA) into the RBC membrane should decrease lipid peroxidation, thereby improving RBC lifespan, deformability, filterability, and post-transfusion recovery (PTR) after cold storage. Study Design and Methods: Mice associated with good (C57BL/6J) and poor (FVB) RBC storage quality received diets containing 11,11-D2-LA Ethyl Ester (1.0 g/100 g diet; deuterated linoleic acid) or non-deuterated LA Ethyl Ester (control) for 8 weeks. Deformability, filterability, lipidomics, and lipid peroxidation markers were evaluated in fresh and stored RBCs. Results: DLA was incorporated into RBC membranes in both mouse strains. DLA diet decreased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) by 25.4 and 31% percent in C57 mice and 12.9 and 79.9% in FVB mice before and after cold storage, respectively. In FVB, but not C57 mice, deformability filterability, and post-transfusion recovery were significantly improved. Discussion: In a mouse model of poor RBC storage, with elevated reactive oxygen species production, DLA attenuated lipid peroxidation and significantly improved RBC storage quality.
    • Evidence of Structural Protein Damage and Membrane Lipid Remodeling in Red Blood Cells from COVID-19 Patients

      Thomas, Tiffany; Stefanoni, Davide; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Issaian, Aaron; Nemkov, Travis; Hill, Ryan C; Francis, Richard O; Hudson, Krystalyn E; Buehler, Paul W; Zimring, James C; et al. (American Chemical Society, 2020-10-26)
      The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, in particular, short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.
    • Lipidomic dysregulation within the lung parenchyma following whole-thorax lung irradiation: Markers of injury, inflammation and fibrosis detected by MALDI-MSI

      Carter, C.L.; Jones, J.W.; Farese, A.M. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017)
      Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure that can limit curative cancer treatment therapies and cause lethality following high-dose whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). To date, the exact mechanisms of injury development following insult remain ill-defined and there are no FDA approved pharmaceutical agents or medical countermeasures. Traditionally, RILI development is considered as three phases, the clinically latent period, the intermediate acute pneumonitis phase and the later fibrotic stage. Utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging, we identified a number of lipids that were reflective of disease state or injury. Lipids play central roles in metabolism and cell signaling, and thus reflect the phenotype of the tissue environment, making these molecules pivotal biomarkers in many disease processes. We detected decreases in specific surfactant lipids irrespective of the different pathologies that presented within each sample at 180 days post whole-thorax lung irradiation. We also detected regional increases in ether-linked phospholipids that are the precursors of PAF, and global decreases in lipids that were reflective of severe fibrosis. Taken together our results provide panels of lipids that can differentiate between naïve and irradiated samples, as well as providing potential markers of inflammation and fibrosis. Copyright 2017 The Author(s).
    • Maintenance of Deep Lung Architecture and Automated Airway Segmentation for 3D Mass Spectrometry Imaging

      Scott, A.J.; Chandler, C.E.; Ernst, R.K. (Nature Research, 2019)
      Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technique for mapping the spatial distributions of molecules in sectioned tissue. Histology-preserving tissue preparation methods are central to successful MSI studies. Common fixation methods, used to preserve tissue morphology, can result in artifacts in the resulting MSI experiment including delocalization of analytes, altered adduct profiles, and loss of key analytes due to irreversible cross-linking and diffusion. This is especially troublesome in lung and airway samples, in which histology and morphology is best interpreted from 3D reconstruction, requiring the large and small airways to remain inflated during analysis. Here, we developed an MSI-compatible inflation containing as few exogenous components as possible, forgoing perfusion, fixation, and addition of salt solutions upon inflation that resulted in an ungapped 3D molecular reconstruction through more than 300 microns. We characterized a series of polyunsaturated phospholipids (PUFA-PLs), specifically phosphatidylinositol (-PI) lipids linked to lethal inflammation in bacterial infection and mapped them in serial sections of inflated mouse lung. PUFA-PIs were identified using spatial lipidomics and determined to be determinant markers of major airway features using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Deep lung architecture was preserved using this inflation approach and the resulting sections are compatible with multiple MSI modalities, automated interpretation software, and serial 3D reconstruction. Copyright 2019, The Author(s).