• Mesenchymal Stem Cells Do Not Lose Direct Labels Including Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and DFO-89 Zr Chelates through Secretion of Extracellular Vesicles

      Gao, Yue; Jablonska, Anna; Chu, Chengyan; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw (MDPI AG, 2021-06-29)
      Rapidly ageing populations are beset by tissue wear and damage. Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is considered a solution. Years of research point to two important aspects: (1) the use of cellular imaging to achieve sufficient precision of therapeutic intervention, and the fact that (2) many therapeutic actions are executed through extracellular vesicles (EV), released by stem cells. Therefore, there is an urgent need to interrogate cellular labels in the context of EV release. We studied clinically applicable cellular labels: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), and radionuclide detectable by two main imaging modalities: MRI and PET. We have demonstrated effective stem cell labeling using both labels. Then, we obtained EVs from cell cultures and tested for the presence of cellular labels. We did not find either magnetic or radioactive labels in EVs. Therefore, we report that stem cells do not lose labels in released EVs, which indicates the reliability of stem cell magnetic and radioactive labeling, and that there is no interference of labels with EV content. In conclusion, we observed that direct cellular labeling seems to be an attractive approach to monitoring stem cell delivery, and that, importantly, labels neither locate in EVs nor affect their basic properties.