• The role of insula-cerebellum connection underlying aversive regulation with acupuncture

      Bai, L.; Niu, X.; Liu, Z. (SAGE Publications Inc., 2018)
      Acupuncture at pericardium 6 (PC6) shows a consistently positive efficacy in nausea response suggested by consensus expert guidelines. Nausea encompasses aversive symptom as well as strong emotional components. Disgust is a subjective emotion of uneasy commonly accompanying with a physiological response that is accompanied by strong visceral sensations (e.g., nausea). Understanding the brain circuitry by which acupuncture influences the disgust emotion may further elucidate the modulation effect of acupuncture on aversive experience. In the present study, a well-established aversive conditioning model on healthy subjects was combined with acupuncture intervention at PC6, as well as different acupoints (both local PC7 and distant GB37) as separate controls, to investigate the brain network involved aversive regulation with acupuncture; 48 healthy subjects were enrolled and randomized into four parallel groups: group 1 received disgust-induced (DI) stimuli only; groups 2, 3, and 4 received acupuncture at three single acupoints separately prior to the DI. Disgust sensations were rated at baseline and following disgust stimuli. Acupuncture PC6 can induce significant attenuations in disgust sensations than that of no intervention and acupuncture at other acupoints. Neuroimaging further showed that increased causal interaction strength between the cerebellum (nodulus) and insula can predict greater attenuations in aversive experiences. We also found evidence for radical reorganizations of local stronger casual interaction patterns to disgust-induced brain responses targeted by acupuncture at different acupoints. This study provided the brain substrate for acupuncture on aversion modulation. The coupling between the cerebellum (nodulus) and insula supported interoception system and vestibular control which provided the specific neural basis. Copyright The Author(s) 2018.