• Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age Presenting for Medical Care With Diarrhea in Rural Matlab, Bangladesh

      Schwartz, L.M.; Zaman, K.; Neuzil, K.M. (Oxford University Press, 2019)
      BACKGROUND: Following the conclusion of a human rotavirus vaccine (HRV) cluster-randomized, controlled trial (CRT) in Matlab, Bangladesh, HRV was included in Matlab's routine immunization program. We describe the population-level impact of programmatic rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh in children <2 years of age. METHODS: Interrupted time series were used to estimate the impact of HRV introduction. We used diarrheal surveillance collected between 2000 and 2014 within the 2 service delivery areas (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh [icddr,b] service area [ISA] and government service area [GSA]) of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System, administered by icddr,b. Age group-specific incidence rates were calculated for both rotavirus-positive (RV+) and rotavirus-negative (RV-) diarrhea diagnoses of any severity presenting to the hospital. We used 2 models to assess the impact within each service area: Model 1 used the pre-vaccine time period in all villages (HRV- and control-only) and Model 2 combined the pre-vaccine time period and the CRT time period, using outcomes from control-only villages. RESULTS: Both models demonstrated a downward trend in RV+ diarrheal incidences in the ISA villages during 3.5 years of routine HRV use, though only Model 2 was statistically significant. Significant impacts of HRV on RV+ diarrhea incidences in GSA villages were not observed in either model. Differences in population-level impacts between the 2 delivery areas may be due to the varied rotavirus vaccine coverage and presentation rates to the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence of the population-level impact of rotavirus vaccines in children <2 years of age in Matlab, Bangladesh. Further studies are needed of the rotavirus vaccine impact after the nationwide introduction in Bangladesh. Copyright: The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.