• Comparative Reductions in Investigator-Reported and Adjudicated Ischemic Events in REDUCE-IT

      Gaba, Prakriti; Bhatt, Deepak L; Giugliano, Robert P; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Miller, Michael; Brinton, Eliot A; Jacobson, Terry A; Ketchum, Steven B; Juliano, Rebecca A; Jiao, Lixia; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-10-04)
      Background: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) randomized statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides to icosapent ethyl (IPE) or placebo. There was a significant reduction in adjudicated events, including the primary endpoint (cardiovascular [CV] death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, coronary revascularization, unstable angina requiring hospitalization) and key secondary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) with IPE. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of IPE on investigator-reported events. Methods: Potential endpoints were collected by blinded site investigators and subsequently adjudicated by a blinded Clinical Endpoint Committee (CEC) according to a prespecified charter. Investigator-reported events were compared with adjudicated events for concordance. Results: There was a high degree of concordance between investigator-reported and adjudicated endpoints. The simple Kappa statistic between CEC-adjudicated vs site-reported events for the primary endpoint was 0.89 and for the key secondary endpoint was 0.90. Based on investigator-reported events in 8,179 randomized patients, IPE significantly reduced the rate of the primary endpoint (19.1% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.67-0.81]; P < 0.0001) and the key secondary endpoint (10.5% vs 13.6%; HR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.66-0.85]; P < 0.0001). Among adjudicated events, IPE similarly reduced the rate of the primary and key secondary endpoints. Conclusions: IPE led to consistent, significant reductions in CV events, including MI and coronary revascularization, as determined by independent, blinded CEC adjudication as well as by blinded investigator-reported assessment. These results highlight the robust evidence for the substantial CV benefits of IPE seen in REDUCE-IT and further raise the question of whether adjudication of CV outcome trial endpoints is routinely required in blinded, placebo-controlled trials. (Evaluation of the Effect of AMR101 on Cardiovascular Health and Mortality in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients With Cardiovascular Disease or at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: REDUCE-IT [Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA - Intervention Trial]; NCT01492361).
    • Effects of Icosapent Ethyl on Total Ischemic Events: From REDUCE-IT

      Bhatt, D.L.; Steg, P.G.; Miller, M. (Elsevier USA, 2019)
      Background: In time-to-first-event analyses, icosapent ethyl significantly reduced the risk of ischemic events, including cardiovascular death, among patients with elevated triglycerides receiving statins. These patients are at risk for not only first but also subsequent ischemic events. Objectives: Pre-specified analyses determined the extent to which icosapent ethyl reduced total ischemic events. Methods: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial)randomized 8,179 statin-treated patients with triglycerides ≥135 and <500 mg/dl (median baseline of 216 mg/dl) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 and ≤100 mg/dl /dl (median baseline of 75 mg/dl), and a history of atherosclerosis (71% patients)or diabetes (29% patients)to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day or placebo. The main outcomes were total (first and subsequent)primary composite endpoint events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina)and total key secondary composite endpoint events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). As a pre-specified statistical method, we determined differences in total events using negative binomial regression. We also determined differences in total events using other statistical models, including Andersen-Gill, Wei-Lin-Weissfeld (Li and Lagakos modification), both pre-specified, and a post hoc joint frailty analysis. Results: In 8,179 patients, followed for a median of 4.9 years, 1,606 (55.2%)first primary endpoint events and 1,303 (44.8%)subsequent primary endpoint events occurred (which included 762 second events, and 541 third or more events). Overall, icosapent ethyl reduced total primary endpoint events (61 vs. 89 per 1,000 patient-years for icosapent ethyl versus placebo, respectively; rate ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 0.78; p < 0.0001). Icosapent ethyl also reduced totals for each component of the primary composite endpoint, as well as the total key secondary endpoint events (32 vs. 44 per 1,000 patient-years for icosapent ethyl versus placebo, respectively; rate ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.82; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Among statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides and cardiovascular disease or diabetes, multiple statistical models demonstrate that icosapent ethyl substantially reduces the burden of first, subsequent, and total ischemic events. (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial [REDUCE-IT]; NCT01492361) Copyright 2019 The Authors
    • Icosapent Ethyl Reduces Ischemic Events in Patients with a History of Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: REDUCE-IT CABG

      Verma, Subodh; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Miller, Michael; Brinton, Eliot A; Jacobson, Terry A; Dhingra, Nitish K; Ketchum, Steven B; Juliano, Rebecca A; Jiao, Lixia; et al. (American Heart Association, 2021-10-28)
      Background: Despite advances in surgery and pharmacotherapy, there remains significant residual ischemic risk following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: In the multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial REDUCE-IT, statin-treated patients with controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and mild to moderate hypertriglyceridemia were randomized to 4g daily of icosapent ethyl or placebo. They experienced a 25% reduction in risk of a primary efficacy endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina) and a 26% reduction in risk of a key secondary efficacy endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) when compared with placebo. The present analysis reports on the subgroup of patients from the trial with a history of CABG. Results: Of the 8,179 patients randomized in REDUCE-IT, a total of 1,837 (22.5%) had a history of CABG, with 897 patients randomized to icosapent ethyl and 940 to placebo. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. Randomization to icosapent ethyl was associated with a significant reduction in the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.92; P=0.004), in the key secondary endpoint (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87; P=0.001), and in total (first plus subsequent or recurrent) ischemic events (rate ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81; P=0.0002) compared with placebo. This yielded an absolute risk reduction of 6.2% (95% CI, 2.3%-10.2%) in first events, with a number needed to treat of 16 (95% CI, 10-44) over a median follow-up time of 4.8 years. Safety findings were similar to the overall study: beyond an increased rate of atrial fibrillation/flutter requiring hospitalization for at least 24 hours (5.0% vs. 3.1%; P=0.03) and a non-significant increase in bleeding, occurrences of adverse events were comparable between groups. Conclusions: In REDUCE-IT patients with a history of CABG, treatment with icosapent ethyl was associated with significant reductions in first and recurrent ischemic events.
    • Reduction in Revascularization With Icosapent Ethyl: Insights From REDUCE-IT Revascularization Analyses.

      Peterson, Benjamin E; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Miller, Michael; Brinton, Eliot A; Jacobson, Terry A; Ketchum, Steven B; Juliano, Rebecca A; Jiao, Lixia; Doyle, Ralph T; et al. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2020-11-05)
      A total of 8179 randomly assigned patients were followed for 4.9 years (median). First revascularizations were reduced to 9.2% (22.5/1000 patient-years) with icosapent ethyl versus 13.3% (33.7/1000 patient-years) with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.58-0.76]; P<0.0001; number needed to treat for 4.9 years=24); similar reductions were observed in total (first and subsequent) revascularizations (negative binomial rate ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.56-0.74]; P<0.0001), and across elective, urgent, and emergent revascularizations. Icosapent ethyl significantly reduced percutaneous coronary intervention (hazard ratio, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.59-0.79]; P<0.0001) and coronary artery bypass grafting (hazard ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.45-0.81]; P=0.0005).