• Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

      Nguyen, Thanh N; Haussen, Diogo C; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Mansour, Ossama Y; Abdalkader, Mohamad; Frankel, Michael; Qiu, Zhongming; Taylor, Allan; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-26)
      Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
    • Multiple trauma management in mountain environments - a scoping review : Evidence based guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MedCom). Intended for physicians and other advanced life support personnel

      Sumann, G.; Moens, D.; Brink, B.; Brodmann Maeder, M.; Greene, M.; Jacob, M.; Koirala, P.; Zafren, K.; Ayala, M.; Musi, M.; et al. (BioMed Central, 2020-12-14)
      BACKGROUND: Multiple trauma in mountain environments may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared to urban environments. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence based guidance to assist rescuers in multiple trauma management in mountain environments. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All articles published on or before September 30th 2019, in all languages, were included. Articles were searched with predefined search terms. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and hand searching of relevant studies from the reference list of included articles. CHARTING METHODS: Evidence was searched according to clinically relevant topics and PICO questions. RESULTS: Two-hundred forty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria. Recommendations were developed and graded according to the evidence-grading system of the American College of Chest Physicians. The manuscript was initially written and discussed by the coauthors. Then it was presented to ICAR MedCom in draft and again in final form for discussion and internal peer review. Finally, in a face-to-face discussion within ICAR MedCom consensus was reached on October 11th 2019, at the ICAR fall meeting in Zakopane, Poland. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple trauma management in mountain environments can be demanding. Safety of the rescuers and the victim has priority. A crABCDE approach, with haemorrhage control first, is central, followed by basic first aid, splinting, immobilisation, analgesia, and insulation. Time for on-site medical treatment must be balanced against the need for rapid transfer to a trauma centre and should be as short as possible. Reduced on-scene times may be achieved with helicopter rescue. Advanced diagnostics (e.g. ultrasound) may be used and treatment continued during transport.
    • Prophylactic epinephrine for the prevention of transbronchial lung biopsy-related bleeding in lung transplant recipients (PROPHET) study: A protocol for a multicentre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

      Kalchiem-Dekel, O.; Iacono, A.; Pickering, E.M. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2019)
      Introduction Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) is frequently performed in single-lung and double-lung transplant recipients for evaluation of clinical and radiological findings as well as routine surveillance for acute cellular rejection. While rates of clinically significant TBLB-related haemorrhage are <1% for all comers, the incidence in lung transplant recipients is reported to be higher, presumably due to persistent allograft inflammation and alterations in allograft blood flow. While routinely performed by some bronchoscopists, the efficacy and safety profile of prophylactic administration of topical intrabronchial diluted epinephrine for the prevention of TBLB-related haemorrhage has not been explored in a prospective manner. Methods and analysis In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial (PROPHET Study), single-lung and double-lung transplant adult recipients from participating institutions who are scheduled for bronchoscopy with TBLB for clinical indications will be identified. Potential participants who meet inclusion and exclusion criteria and sign an informed consent will be randomised to receive either diluted epinephrine or placebo prior to performance of TBLB. The degree of TBLB-related haemorrhage will be graded by the performing bronchoscopist as well as independent observers. The primary analysis will compare the rates of severe and very severe bleeding in participants treated with epinephrine or placebo. The study will also evaluate the safety profile of prophylactic topical epinephrine including the occurrence of serious cardiovascular and haemodynamic adverse events. Additional secondary outcomes to be explored include rates of non-severe TBLB-related haemorrhage, overall yield of the bronchoscopic procedure and non-serious cardiovascular and haemodynamic adverse effects. Ethics and dissemination The study procedures were reviewed and approved by institutional review boards in participating institutions. This study is being externally monitored, and a data and safety monitoring committee has been assembled to monitor patient safety and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at relevant academic conferences. Trial registration number NCT03126968; Pre-results. Copyright Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019.