• Comparing the Outcomes of Adults with Enterobacteriaceae Bacteremia Receiving Short-Course Versus Prolonged-Course Antibiotic Therapy in a Multicenter, Propensity Score-Matched Cohort

      Chotiprasitsakul, D.; Han, J.H.; Cosgrove, S.E. (Oxford University Press, 2018)
      Background The recommended duration of antibiotic treatment for Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections is 7-14 days. We compared the outcomes of patients receiving short-course (6-10 days) vs prolonged-course (11-16 days) antibiotic therapy for Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 3 medical centers and included patients with monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia treated with in vitro active therapy in the range of 6-16 days between 2008 and 2014. 1:1 nearest neighbor propensity score matching without replacement was performed prior to regression analysis to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality within 30 days after the end of antibiotic treatment comparing patients in the 2 treatment groups. Secondary outcomes included recurrent bloodstream infections, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) bacteria, all within 30 days after the end of antibiotic therapy. Results There were 385 well-balanced matched pairs. The median duration of therapy in the short-course group and prolonged-course group was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7-9 days) and 15 days (IQR, 13-15 days), respectively. No difference in mortality between the treatment groups was observed (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI],.62-1.63). The odds of recurrent bloodstream infections and CDI were also similar. There was a trend toward a protective effect of short-course antibiotic therapy on the emergence of MDRGN bacteria (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI,.32-1.09; P =.09). Conclusions Short courses of antibiotic therapy yield similar clinical outcomes as prolonged courses of antibiotic therapy for Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, and may protect against subsequent MDRGN bacteria. Copyright The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.