• HIV healthcare transition outcomes among youth in North America and Europe: A review

      Tepper, V.; Zaner, S.; Ryscavage, P. (International AIDS Society, 2017)
      Introduction: The transition from paediatric to adult care poses risks to the health of young adults living with HIV if unsuccessful, including interruptions in care and poor health outcomes. Evolving best practices in HIV healthcare transition should ideally be informed by real-world qualitative and quantitative clinical healthcare transition outcomes. There has been a recent proliferation of HIV healthcare transition outcome research, largely from Europe and North America. Methods: A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Medical subject and text word searches were combined for terms relating to HIV, paediatric transition outcomes, and internal and external factors were used to identify peer-reviewed articles. Results: In this paper, we review data on HIV healthcare transition outcomes in North America and Europe. Internal and external factors which may impact the success of HIV healthcare transition are examined. We describe ongoing research efforts to capture transition outcomes in the North America and Europe. Clinical, operational, and implementation science research gaps that exist to date are highlighted. Efforts to improve HIV healthcare transition research through country-level surveillance networks and large multicentre cohorts, including data integration and linkage between paediatric and adult cohorts are discussed. Conclusions: We identified the need for a comprehensive approach to implementing empirically supported protocols to support healthcare transition for ALHIV. While there is limited prospective longitudinal cohort data available at this time, cohorts linking the paediatric and adolescent with ongoing surveillance into adulthood are being developed. Through a review of existing qualitative and quantitative healthcare transition outcomes studies, we identify emerging areas of consensus surrounding healthcare transition research implementation. Successful healthcare transition programmes in Europe and North America often share several characteristics, including implementation of a youth friendly multidisciplinary approach, consistent communication and integration between paediatric and adult care teams, and an individualized approach which is attuned the adolescent's transition readiness. Moving forward, the voices of youth and young adults living with HIV should be included in the development and evaluation of healthcare transition protocols to ensure that the definition of successful transition reflects all of the stakeholders in the transition process. Copyright 2017 Tepper V et al; licensee International AIDS Society.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Typhoid Intestinal Perforation Among Children in Sub-Saharan Africa 1995-2019: A Scoping Review

      Birkhold, M.; Sow, S.; Neuzil, K.M. (Springer, 2020)
      Background: Typhoid fever incidence and complications, including intestinal perforation, have declined significantly in high-income countries, with mortality rates <1%. However, an estimated 10.9 million cases still occur annually, most in low- and middle-income countries. With the availability of a new typhoid conjugate vaccine licensed for children and recommended by the World Health Organization, understanding severe complications, including associated mortality rates, is essential to inform country-level decisions on introduction of this vaccine. This scoping review summarizes over 20 years of the literature on typhoid intestinal perforation in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases for studies reporting mortality rates due to typhoid intestinal perforation in children, under 18 years old, in sub-Saharan Africa published from January 1995 through June 2019. Results: Twenty-four papers from six countries were included. Reported mortality rates ranged from 4.6-75%, with 16 of the 24 studies between 11 and 30%. Thirteen papers included postoperative morbidity rates, ranging from 16-100%. The most documented complications included surgical site infections, intra-abdominal abscesses, and enterocutaneous fistulas. High mortality rates can be attributed to late presentation to tertiary centers, sepsis and electrolyte abnormalities requiring preoperative resuscitation, prolonged perforation-to-surgery interval, and lack of access to critical care or an intensive care unit postoperatively. Conclusions: Current estimates of mortality related to typhoid intestinal perforation among children in sub-Saharan Africa remain unacceptably high. Prevention of typhoid fever is essential to reduce mortality, with the ultimate goal of a comprehensive approach that utilizes vaccination, improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene, and greater access to surgical care. Copyright 2020, The Author(s).
    • Population Pharmacokinetics of Metoclopramide in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

      Ge, S.; Mendley, S.R.; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act - Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2020)
      Metoclopramide is commonly used for gastroesophageal reflux. The aims of the present study were to develop a pediatric population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model, which was applied to simulate the metoclopramide exposure following dosing used in clinical practice. Opportunistic pharmacokinetic data were collected from pediatric patients receiving enteral or parenteral metoclopramide per standard of care and these data were simultaneously fitted using NONMEM. Allometric scaling with body weight was included a priori in the model. Using the final model, the steady-state maximum concentrations (Css,max) and the area under the metoclopramide plasma concentration-time curve at steady state from 0 to 6 hours (AUCss,0-6h) were simulated following 0.1 or 0.15 mg/kg orally every 6 hours in virtual patients, and compared with previously reported ranges associated with toxicity or the efficacy for gastroesophageal reflux in infants. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption best characterized 87 concentration measurements from 50 patients (median [range] postnatal age of 8.89 years [0.01-19.13]). There were 20 infants (≤ 2 years), 9 children (2 years to age ≤ 12 years), and 21 adolescents (&gt; 12 years). Body weight was the only covariate included in the final model. For &gt; 75% of virtual patients, simulated Css,max and AUCss,0-6h estimates were within the range associated with efficacy for gastroesophageal reflux in infants; however, slightly lower exposures were predicted in virtual patients &lt; 2 years. Our study suggests that a metoclopramide enteral dose of 0.1 mg/kg every 6 hours, which was previously recommended for pediatric patients, results in simulated exposure generally within suggested ranges for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux. Copyright 2020 The Authors.