• Effects of long-term water-aging on novel anti-biofilm and protein-repellent dental composite

      Zhang, N.; Zhang, K.; Melo, M.A.S. (MDPI AG, 2017)
      The aims of this study were to: (1) synthesize an anti-biofilm and protein-repellet dental composite by combining 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) with quaternary ammonium dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM); and (2) evaluate the effects of water-aging for 180 days on protein resistance, bacteria-killing ability, and mechanical properties of MPC-DMAHDM composite. MPC and DMAHDM were added into a resin composite. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 1, 30, 90, and 180 days. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. Protein attachment onto the composite was evaluated by a micro bicinchoninic acid approach. An oral plaque microcosm biofilm model was employed to evaluate oral biofilm viability vs. water-aging time. Mechanical properties of the MPC-DMAHDM composite after 180-day immersion matched those of the commercial control composite. The composite with 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM had much stronger resistance to protein adhesion than control (p < 0.05). MPC + DMAHDM achieved much stronger biofilm-eradicating effects than MPC or DMAHDM alone (p < 0.05). Biofilm colony-forming units on the 3% MPC + 1.5% DMAHDM composite were three orders of magnitude lower than commercial control. The protein-repellent and antibacterial effects were durable and showed no loss in water-aging from 1 to 180 days. The novel MPC-DMAHDM composite possessed strong and durable resistance to protein adhesion and potent bacteria-eradicating function, while matching the load-bearing ability of a commercial dental composite. The novel MPC-DMAHDM composite represents a promising means of suppressing oral plaque growth, acid production, and secondary caries. Copyright 2017 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.