• Age and geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in a representative sample of children living in Burkitt lymphoma-endemic areas of northern Uganda

      Maziarz, M.; Kinyera, T.; Otim, I. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2017)
      Background: Falciparum malaria is an important risk factor for African Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but few studies have evaluated malaria patterns in healthy BL-age children in populations where both diseases are endemic. To obtain accurate current data, patterns of asymptomatic malaria were investigated in northern Uganda, where BL is endemic. Methods: Between 2011 and 2015, 1150 apparently healthy children under 15 years old were sampled from 100 villages in northern Uganda using a stratified, multi-stage, cluster survey design. Falciparum malaria prevalence (pfPR) was assessed by questionnaire, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and thick film microscopy (TFM). Weighted pfPR and unadjusted and adjusted associations of prevalence with covariates were calculated using logistic models and survey methods. Results: Based on 1143 children successfully tested, weighted pfPR was 54.8% by RDT and 43.4% by TFM. RDT sensitivity and specificity were 97.5 and 77.8%, respectively, as compared to TFM, because RDT detect malaria antigens, which persist in peripheral blood after clinical malaria, thus results based on RDT are reported. Weighted pfPR increased from 40% in children aged under 2 years to 61.8% in children aged 6–8 years (odds ratio 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–4.65), then fell slightly to 49% in those aged 12–15 years. Geometric mean parasite density was 1805.5 parasites/µL (95% CI 1344.6–2424.3) among TFM-positive participants, and it was higher in children aged <5 years at 5092.9/µL (95% CI 2892.7–8966.8) and lower in those aged ≥10 years at 983.8/µL (95% CI 472.7–2047.4; P = 0.001). Weighted pfPR was lower in children residing in sub-regions employing indoor residual spraying (IRS) than in those residing in non-IRS sub-regions (32.8 versus 65.7%; OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14, 0.46). However, pfPR varied both within IRS (3.2–55.3%) and non-IRS sub-regions (29.8–75.8%; Pheterogeneity <0.001). pfPR was inversely correlated with a child’s mother’s income (P = 0.011) and positively correlated with being enrolled in the wet season (P = 0.076), but sex was irrelevant. Conclusions: The study observed high but geographically and demographically heterogenous patterns of asymptomatic malaria prevalence among children living in northern Uganda. These results provide important baseline data that will enable precise evaluation of associations between malaria and BL. Copyright 2017 The Author(s).
    • Contrasting Epidemiology of Cholera in Bangladesh and Africa.

      Sack, David A; Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Bwire, Godfrey; Ali, Mohammad; Ngwa, Moise Chi; Mwaba, John; Chilengi, Roma; Orach, Christopher C; Boru, Waqo; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-12)
    • Factors affecting job choice among physician anesthesia providers in Uganda: a survey of income composition, discrete choice experiment, and implications for the decision to work rurally

      Law, Tyler J; Subhedar, Shivani; Bulamba, Fred; O'Hara, Nathan N; Nabukenya, Mary T; Sendagire, Cornelius; Hewitt-Smith, Adam; Lipnick, Michael S; Tumukunde, Janat (Springer Nature, 2021-07-28)
      Background: One of the biggest barriers to accessing safe surgical and anesthetic care is lack of trained providers. Uganda has one of the largest deficits in anesthesia providers in the world, and though they are increasing in number, they remain concentrated in the capital city. Salary is an oft-cited barrier to rural job choice, yet the size and sources of anesthesia provider incomes are unclear, and so the potential income loss from taking a rural job is unknown. Additionally, while salary augmentation is a common policy proposal to increase rural job uptake, the relative importance of non-monetary job factors in job choice is also unknown. Methods: A survey on income sources and magnitude, and a Discrete Choice Experiment examining the relative importance of monetary and non-monetary factors in job choice, was administered to 37 and 47 physician anesthesiologists in Uganda, between May–June 2019. Results: No providers worked only at government jobs. Providers earned most of their total income from a non-government job (50% of income, 23% of working hours), but worked more hours at their government job (36% of income, and 44% of working hours). Providers felt the most important job attributes were the quality of the facility and scope of practice they could provide, and the presence of a colleague (33% and 32% overall relative importance). These were more important than salary and living conditions (14% and 12% importance). Conclusions: No providers accepted the salary from a government job alone, which was always augmented by other work. However, few providers worked only nongovernment jobs. Non-monetary incentives are powerful influencers of job preference, and may be leveraged as policy options to attract providers. Salary continues to be an important driver of job choice, and jobs with fewer income generating opportunities (e.g. private work in rural areas) are likely to need salary augmentation to attract providers. © 2021, The Author(s).
    • Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae responsible for cholera epidemics in Uganda by PCR, MLVA and WGS

      Bwire, G.; Sack, D.A.; Almeida, M. (Public Library of Science, 2018)
      Background: For almost 50 years sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda, has experienced several outbreaks due to Vibrio cholerae. Our aim was to determine the genetic relatedness and spread of strains responsible for cholera outbreaks in Uganda. Methodology/Principal findings: Sixty-three V. cholerae isolates collected from outbreaks in Uganda between 2014 and 2016 were tested using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three closely related MLVA clonal complexes (CC) were identified: CC1, 32% (20/63); CC2, 40% (25/63) and CC3, 28% (18/63). Each CC contained isolates from a different WGS clade. These clades were contained in the third wave of the 7thcholera pandemic strain, two clades were contained in the transmission event (T)10 lineage and other in T13. Analysing the dates and genetic relatedness revealed that V. cholerae genetic lineages spread between districts within Uganda and across national borders. Conclusion: The V. cholerae strains showed local and regional transmission within Uganda and the East African region. To prevent, control and eliminate cholera, these countries should implement strong cross-border collaboration and regional coordination of preventive activities. Copyright 2018 Bwire et al. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/