• L-Plastin Phosphorylation: Possible Regulation by a TNFR1 Signaling Cascade in Osteoclasts

      Chellaiah, Meenakshi A (MDPI AG, 2021-09-15)
      Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling regulates phosphorylation of L-plastin, which is involved in forming the nascent sealing zone, a precursor zone for the matured sealing ring. This study aimed to illustrate the molecular mechanisms of L-plastin phosphorylation and the subsequent formation of the nascent sealing zone in osteoclasts treated with TNF-α. Here, we report that anti-TNF-receptor 1, inhibitors of signaling proteins (Src, PI3-K, Rho, and Rho-kinase), and siRNA of TRAF-6 attenuated the phosphorylation of LPL and filamentous actin content significantly in the presence of TNF-α. An inhibitor of integrin αvβ3, PKC, or PKA did not inhibit TNF-α-induced L-plastin phosphorylation. Inhibitors of Src and PI3-K and not Rho or Rho-kinase reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of TRAF-6, suggesting that Src and PI3-K regulate TRAF-6 phosphorylation, and Rho and Rho-kinase are downstream of TRAF-6 regulation. Osteoclasts expressing constitutively active or kinase-defective Src proteins were used to determine the role of Src on L-plastin phosphorylation; similarly, the effect of Rho was confirmed by transducing TAT-fused constitutively active (V14) or dominant-negative (N19) Rho proteins into osteoclasts. Pull-down analysis with glutathione S-transferase-fused SH2 and SH3 domains of Src and PI3-K demonstrated coprecipitation of L-plastin and TRAF-6 with the SH3 and SH2 domains of the PI3-K and Src proteins. However, the actual order of the interaction of proteins requires further elucidation; a comprehensive screening should corroborate the initial findings of protein interactions via the SH2/SH3 domains. Ultimately, inhibition of the interaction of proteins with SH2/SH3 could reduce L-plastin phosphorylation and affect NSZ formation and bone resorption in conditions that display osteoclast activation and bone loss.