• Gamma delta T cell therapy for cancer: It is good to be local

      Pauza, C.D.; Liou, M.-L.; Lahusen, T. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2018)
      Human gamma delta T cells have extraordinary properties including the capacity for tumor cell killing. The major gamma delta T cell subset in human beings is designated Vγ9Vδ2 and is activated by intermediates of isoprenoid biosynthesis or aminobisphosphonate inhibitors of farnesyldiphosphate synthase. Activated cells are potent for killing a broad range of tumor cells and demonstrated the capacity for tumor reduction in murine xenotransplant tumor models. Translating these findings to the clinic produced promising initial results but greater potency is needed. Here, we review the literature on gamma delta T cells in cancer therapy with emphasis on the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell subset. Our goal was to examine obstacles preventing effective Vγ9Vδ2 T cell therapy and strategies for overcoming them. We focus on the potential for local activation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells within the tumor environment to increase potency and achieve objective responses during cancer therapy. The gamma delta T cells and especially the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell subset, have the potential to overcome many problems in cancer therapy especially for tumors with no known treatment, lacking tumor-specific antigens for targeting by antibodies and CAR-T, or unresponsive to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Translation of amazing work from many laboratories studying gamma delta T cells is needed to fulfill the promise of effective and safe cancer immunotherapy. Copyright 2018 Pauza, Liou, Lahusen, Xiao, Lapidus, Cairo and Li.
    • Phylotranscriptomics suggests the jawed vertebrate ancestor could generate diverse helper and regulatory T cell subsets

      Redmond, A.K.; Macqueen, D.J.; Dooley, H. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2018)
      Background: The cartilaginous fishes diverged from other jawed vertebrates ~ 450 million years ago (mya). Despite this key evolutionary position, the only high-quality cartilaginous fish genome available is for the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a chimaera whose ancestors split from the elasmobranch lineage ~ 420 mya. Initial analysis of this resource led to proposals that key components of the cartilaginous fish adaptive immune system, most notably their array of T cell subsets, was primitive compared to mammals. This proposal is at odds with the robust, antigen-specific antibody responses reported in elasmobranchs following immunization. To explore this discrepancy, we generated a multi-tissue transcriptome for small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), a tractable elasmobranch model for functional studies. We searched this, and other newly available sequence datasets, for CD4+ T cell subset-defining genes, aiming to confirm the presence or absence of each subset in cartilaginous fishes. Results: We generated a new transcriptome based on a normalised, multi-tissue RNA pool, aiming to maximise representation of tissue-specific and lowly expressed genes. We utilized multiple transcriptomic datasets and assembly variants in phylogenetic reconstructions to unambiguously identify several T cell subset-specific molecules in cartilaginous fishes for the first time, including interleukins, interleukin receptors, and key transcription factors. Our results reveal the inability of standard phylogenetic reconstruction approaches to capture the site-specific evolutionary processes of fast-evolving immune genes but show that site-heterogeneous mixture models can adequately do so. Conclusions: Our analyses reveal that cartilaginous fishes are capable of producing a range of CD4+ T cell subsets comparable to that of mammals. Further, that the key molecules required for the differentiation and functioning of these subsets existed in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering phylogenetic diversity and, where possible, utilizing multiple datasets for individual species, to accurately infer gene presence or absence at higher taxonomic levels. © 2018 The Author(s).
    • Using adjuvants to drive T cell responses for next-generation infectious disease vaccines

      Rapaka, Rekha R.; Cross, Alan S.; McArthur, Monica A. (MDPI AG, 2021-07-24)
      Using adjuvants to drive features of T cell responses to vaccine antigens is an important technological challenge in the design of new and improved vaccines against infections. Properties such as T helper cell function, T cell memory, and CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity may play critical roles in optimal and long-lived immunity through vaccination. Directly manipulating specific immune activation or antigen delivery pathways with adjuvants may selectively augment desired T cell responses in vaccination and may improve the effectiveness and durability of vaccine responses in humans. In this review we outline recently studied adjuvants in their potential for antigen presenting cell and T cell programming during vaccination, with an emphasis on what has been observed in studies in humans as available. © 2021 by the authors.