• HHV-6 Encephalitis After Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy (CAR-T): 2 Case Reports and a Brief Review of the Literature

      Rebechi, Melanie T; Bork, Jacqueline T; Riedel, David J (Oxford University Press, 2021-09-24)
      Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation can occur in patients who are highly immunosuppressed, including those who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HHV-6 encephalitis is a severe manifestation that is well described in the HSCT population. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy is a novel cancer-directed immunotherapy that results in severe immunosuppression. Patients undergoing CAR-T therapy may be at risk for HHV-6 encephalitis, which can be difficult to distinguish from a common adverse effect of CAR-T therapy, neurotoxicity. Herein, we describe 2 patients diagnosed with HHV-6 encephalitis after CAR-T therapy and discuss the diagnostic approach and differential diagnosis for altered mental status after CAR-T therapy. Diagnosing HHV-6 encephalitis can be difficult in this patient population as altered mental status is common after CAR-T therapy and may be attributed to CAR-T-associated neurotoxicity.