Browsing UMB Open Access Articles by Subject "Multi-species biofilm"
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Regulating oral biofilm from cariogenic state to non-cariogenic state via novel combination of bioactive therapeutic composite and gene-knockoutThe objectives were to investigate a novel combination of gene-knockout with antimicrobial dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) composite in regulating oral biofilm from a cariogenic state toward a non-cariogenic state. A tri-species biofilm model included cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), and non-cariogenic Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii). Biofilm colony-forming-units (CFUs), lactic acid and polysaccharide production were measured. TaqMan real-time-polymerase-chain reaction was used to determine the percentage of each species in biofilm. The rnc gene-knockout for S. mutans with DMAHDM composite reduced biofilm CFU by five logs, compared to control (p < 0.05). Using parent S. mutans, an overwhelming S. mutans percentage of 68.99% and 69.00% existed in biofilms on commercial composite and 0% DMAHDM composite, respectively. In sharp contrast, with a combination of S. mutans rnc knockout and DMAHDM composite, the cariogenic S. mutans percentage in biofilm was reduced to only 6.33%. Meanwhile, the non-cariogenic S. sanguinis + S. gordonii percentage was increased to 93.67%. Therefore, combining rnc-knockout with bioactive and therapeutic dental composite achieved the greatest reduction in S. mutans, and the greatest increase in non-cariogenic species, thereby yielding the least lactic acid-production. This novel method is promising to obtain wide applications to regulate biofilms and inhibit dental caries.